Beans are among the top ten most useful vegetables, so when choosing crops for growing in their garden, it always has a place. In order for the time and money spent to be rewarded with a generous harvest, it is necessary to become familiar with the basic rules of agricultural engineering, planting and care during cultivation in open ground.
When can be harvested in open field
Planting beans plan on May month. Should focus on the weather conditions and the correct temperature in the soil, which is indicated by 12-15 degrees (at a depth of 10 cm). According to the folk calendar, this period coincides with the flowering of chestnuts.
First you need to plant upright varieties, and after a week you can start climbing species. Shrub species bean plan to plant at the beginning of July. This can be done on the beds from which harvests of early ripe vegetables have already been harvested.
Experienced gardeners perform planting work in several stages: from mid-May to early July with an interval of at least 10 days.Spray bean varieties need to be sown in the soil in early July
Is the frost bean afraid?
Beans are heat-loving culture, so the landing is better to do in spring in the second half of maywhen the threat of frost has passed. Young shoots are afraid even of cold winds, which is why many gardeners find its place under the apple trees or along the fence.
The minimum temperature that can sustain bean seedlings does not exceed the mark -3-4 degrees. If the frosts were short, the beans will survive, but their development will be slowed down and yield will be reduced.
Agrotextiles or films used for construction will help to change the situation. temporary shelter.
Moscow white green hand 556
Plant mid early the ripening period, from sowing to harvest, passes 100 days. The bush is only 25 cm tall, the fruit has a parchment layer, but very thin. The culture is unpretentious, resistant to wet environments and droughts.
Curly variety mid early ripening. The ovoid bean has an ocher color with a pale purple pattern. A fruit without a parchment layer and fibers, which makes the structure soft and soft. The plant is tolerant to anthracnose, gray rot.
For the Urals and the middle band
She R - early maturity ripened beans 80-90 daysrecommended to plant in the country in central Russia. The height of the bushes from 35 to 56 cm, the fruits have high taste.
Harvesting begins through 65-85 days after seed germination. Curly bush reaches a height of 3 m, and therefore needs support.
Marble-pink beans do not contain a parchment layer and fibers, which gives them a delicate structure. On the fruits are visible purple streaks and strokes. The application is universal, in any form of beans retains a unique taste.
Culture is different high yield and nutritional qualities of the fruit. The length of the pods is about 30 cm, the beans are large. Cold resistance and strong immunity make it possible to cultivate and grow a plant in Siberia.
Peculiarity: whips with beautiful fiery red flowers can be used as a decorative hedge.
Soak first in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for about 20 minutes. After the procedure, the beans are washed with clean water and again need to be soaked in wood ash infusion for 2 hours.
On the night before sowing, pea beans are wrapped in a damp napkin for germination at home. And 5 minutes before sowing into the soil they are immersed in a solution of boric acid. This will protect the plant from diseases and pests.
Soil preparation and sowing site selection
For planting culture is selected well lit place, but without drafts and strong wind blowing, planting through seedlings is practically not used. The type of soil does not play a big role, but experienced gardeners have noted that the hardest bean develops, can germinate poorly and bear fruit on clay soils. This is due to poor permeability of moisture, because of which the seeds and roots rot.
In general, the preparatory process of forming the beds is to digging the ground to the depth of the spade. At the same time, fertilizers are injected: 4 kg of humus or compost, 2 tbsp, is added per m2. l Dolomite flour, 1 tbsp. l ammonium nitrate and 2 tbsp. l superphosphate.When preparing the ground you need to dig it to the depth of the spade bayonet
Another option for enriching the soil with nutrients involves the use of ½ compost (humus), 30 grams. superphosphate, 20 gr. wood ash per 1 m2.
In determining the place for planting beans, take into account those crops that were grown on it last season.
Scheme and depth of landing
Bush varieties of crops planted according to the scheme:
- depth of laying seeds - somewhere 5-6 cm,
- the distance between the holes in the row - 20-25 cm,
- interrow - 40 cm.
Curly varieties are planted a little differently:
- depth of laying seeds - 5-6 cm,
- the interval between the holes in the row - 25-30 cm,
- interrow - 45-50 cm.
5-6 seeds are immersed in each well. After forming, one seedling on the seedlings should be left with only 3 seedlings, the rest should be removed or carefully transplanted.
According to lunar calendar for 2018 It is recommended to plant beans:
- March - 20-23 numbers
- April - the numbers 6-9, 19, 20, 23-26,
- May - 7-10, 19-24,
- June - 4-7 numbers.
How to harvest without loss
The collection time is determined by the type of beans. If it is asparagus, then you should not bring it to full maturity. Immature beans are suitable for preservation. In other cases, you must wait for the pods to dry completely. There is no reason to be late with the harvest either, some of the harvest may be on the ground, since the pods too dry will burst and lose the beans.
All mature ones are broken, and greenish ones are better left for a while on the bush. Dry pods are laid out on the fabric on them, you can walk with a wide stick or a beater for carpet. The leaves are removed, the beans are dried, moved and laid in the wind. Then they can be stored in a dry ventilated place. They are not afraid of frost, they can be stored in an unheated room.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. The soil
- 3.3. Then you can sow beans
- 3.4. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to grow
- 4.2. Watering
- 4.3. Top dressing
- 4.4. Garter
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 5.1. Treatment
- 6. Cleaning and storage
- 7. Types and varieties
Planting and care of beans (in short)
- Landing: in open ground - in May, when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms to 12-15 ˚C.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: light, fertile, permeable, with a pH of 6-7 pH.
- Watering: before the beginning of bud formation - abundantly, but not more often than once a week, at the stage of 4-5 leaves formation, watering is stopped and resumed only with the beginning of flowering, gradually increasing the water flow.
- Loosening and hilling: the first time is shallow, when the seedlings reach a height of 7 cm, the second time, 2 weeks after the first, simultaneously hilling the bushes, the third loosening with simultaneous hilling of the bushes is carried out before the rows are closed.
- Garter: It needs supports up to 1.5 m high, on which wire is pulled. Fix bean shoots to guide the twine or rope. Sometimes, near the bush, they simply drive in a stake, along which the climbing bean shoots climb.
- Top dressing: in the stage of formation of the first leaf - by superphosphate, in the period of budding - by potassium salt, in the period of ripening of beans - by ash. Haricot does not need nitrogen fertilizers: it can extract this element by itself.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: bean weevil, caterpillars of the garden and cabbage scoop.
- Diseases: anthracnose, bacteriosis, viral mosaic.
Vegetable beans - description
Vegetable beans - curly or upright herbaceous perennial or annual with pinnate leaves, each of which shares is provided with stipule. Flowers collected in the brush, develop in the sinuses. Fruits - bivalve beans, in which there are large bean seeds, separated from each other by incomplete spongy partitions. The weight of each bean is about 1 g. Doctors call the bean the meat of healthy people, because it is not only nutritious and rich in protein, but also healthy.
Beans are a short day plant, that is, in order to ripen and give a high yield, it needs no more than 12 hours of light daily. In addition, the dignity of the beans is its self-pollination: you can grow different varieties of crops in one area and not be afraid that they pereopolyatsya among themselves. We will tell you all about growing beans from seeds: how to fertilize beans, when to dig beans, how to store beans, and provide a lot of other information with which you can easily grow a crop of this valuable vegetable.
When to plant beans in the ground.
Begin to sow beans in May, when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 12-15 ºC. It is advisable to wait until spring frosts are bypassed. A sign that will tell you that it's time to plant beans - chestnut blossoms. Curly varieties of beans are planted a week later than upright. Sprouts can be grown as a second crop after harvesting vegetables that have ripened by early July. Beans can be sown in several stages: every 10 days from mid-May to early July. Many grow beans and peas around apple trees that protect legumes from the cold wind. Before planting the beans, it is necessary to carry out preparatory treatment of the soil and seed. Seeds on the eve of planting are sorted, soaked in sweating water for the night, and in the morning, before planting, they are immersed for 5 minutes in a solution of boric acid (1 g per 5 l of water) - this measure will protect the seeds from pests and many diseases.
Soil for beans.
Beans grow poorly on clay soils, through which water slowly seeps, and too wet soil harms. He does not like beans and soil overloaded with nitrogen, because he is able to extract it from the air. It is best to choose sunny, windproof areas with light, fertile, permeable soil, deep groundwater and a pH of 6-7 units for the bean. If there are areas in your garden with depleted soil that has not been fertilized for a long time, plant beans there, because, like many legumes, it has excellent siderat and a predecessor for all vegetable crops.
Ground for beans is prepared in the fall: the site is dug up to the depth of the bayonet of the shovels, adding 4 kg of humus or compost, 2 tablespoons of dolomite flour, one spoonful of ammonium nitrate and double superphosphate, half a tablespoon of potassium chloride or potash soda for each m² . Or: half a bucket of humus or compost, 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of wood ash per 1 m².
Then you can plant beans.
Beans grow well after crops such as cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, peppers and cucumbers. It is undesirable to plant beans in areas where legumes grew (peas, lentils, soybeans, peanuts, beans and beans themselves) - after such predecessors, beans are planted in the area no earlier than in three or four years. Good neighbors for beans are carrots, beets, onions, as well as tomatoes, cucumbers and cabbage.
How to plant beans in open ground.
Spray bean varieties sown to a depth of 5-6 cm with an interval of 20-25 cm between the bushes and row-spacings up to 40 cm wide. Curly varieties are sown less frequently: 25-30 cm between specimens and row-spacings about half a meter wide. In the well put on 5-6 beans. When seedlings appear, leave only three strong seedlings in the bush, and transplant the rest. After planting, the bed is watered and the soil is compacted with the reverse side of the rake. If you are afraid that the night frosts may return, cover the crops with a film.
After the formation of the first true leaf of the seedlings, they are fed with superphosphate in the amount of 30-40 g per m², and during the budding period potash salt is applied at the rate of 10-15 g per the same area unit. During the ripening period of the beans, it is possible to add wood ash to the soil. It is better not to feed growing beans with nitrogen fertilizers: firstly, it is able to produce nitrogen for itself, and secondly, excess nitrogenous fertilizers can provoke violent growth of greenery, and the crop of beans will be more than modest.
When planting for climbing beans, they install supports up to one and a half meters high, on which a wire or rope is horizontally tensioned. On these stretch marks you will guide the curling shoots of beans. You can grow beans with nests: do not thin the ascended seedlings, leave them to grow in a thick bush, and next to them drive in a wooden stake along which the stalks of beans will curl. Or stick 3-4 guides around the bush up to 2 m in height and tie their tops so that the shape of the support resembles an Indian wigwam. Do not use metal or plastic supports as stakes, because the beans will not climb over them.
Pests and diseases of beans
Most often damage the plant bean weevil, cabbage and garden shovels. The scoops lay eggs on the ground parts of the bean, and the larvae that hatch from them begin to devour the greens, flowers and fruits of the plant. A bean kernel is a bug that gets into the soil along with the seeds and destroys the beans from the inside.
What is sick in beans? With poor care and violation of agrotechnical conditions, beans strike anthracnose, bacteriosis and viral mosaic. Bacteriosis is dangerous because its pathogens not only cause harm to plants and even lead to their death, but can also remain viable for many years and develop in plant residues of the culture and in the soil. Anthracnose appears brown depressed irregular or rounded spots on the seedlings, the veins on the leaves become brown, the plates turn yellow, holes are formed on them, and they die. Red, reddish or brown spots appear on the fruit, turning into ulcers as the disease progresses. The mosaic is characterized by the appearance of necrotic spots on the leaves of the bean and the discoloration of the veins.
To the question of how to treat beans from a virus mosaic, we regret to say: nothing. A viral disease cannot be cured, but it can be avoided if the proper care of the beans is organized, crop rotation is observed and the seeding material is taken seriously. As for anthracnose and bacteriosis, proper care also plays an equally important role in the fight against these diseases, and it is possible to get rid of diseases by removing and burning the diseased plants or their affected parts and treating the beans and the plot with one-percent Bordeaux liquid. But before you treat the beans with a fungicide, think, maybe it is better to take a rule of conducting preventive spraying of beans and a plot from fungal diseases? The treatment of the beans and the soil around it with the Fitosporin preparation is carried out in spring, when the seedlings reach a height of 12-15 cm, and after harvesting. This measure, if you comply with agrotechnics and crop rotation, can make your beans invulnerable.
As for the fight against insects, the scoop can be prevented by digging deep into the plot in the autumn, but if they still appeared in the spring, and there are many of them, the beans will have to be treated with a one-percent Bitoxibacillin solution or a half-percent Gomelin solution, which are bacterial preparations. But to prevent the appearance of a bean seed on the site can be carefully turning over the seeds before sowing, soaking them for swelling and subjecting them to pre-sowing treatment with boric acid.
Harvesting and storing beans
If you want to eat young beans, then you can begin to collect it two weeks after the flowers appear, when the fruits reach the maximum size and the highest palatability. Cut the pods with scissors every two days in the morning, while they are still saturated with night moisture and cool. Use young beans in salads, vegetable stews, in soups, stewed as a side dish for meat and fish. Unfortunately, fresh beans are not stored in fresh form for long. If you want to eat it in the winter, you will need to freeze or preserve the beans.
If you grow beans for grain, then harvest can be done once, when the beans mature and the pods dry. The stems are cut off near the ground, tied up in bunches and hung down by the top in a dry ventilated place - in the attic or in a dry shed. Two weeks later, when the seeds ripen and dry, they are husked from the pods and sent for storage in glass containers with a metal “twist” lid that is kept in a cool room. The roots of the beans remain in the ground, decompose and enrich the soil with nitrogen.
The seeds are left with the first few pods from the bottom of the bushes, dried, husked beans from them, which are stored in the bottom drawer of the refrigerator at a temperature of 5-6 ºC. Seed germination lasts up to ten years.
Types and varieties of beans
Varieties of beans for open ground are classified according to various criteria. Например, по срокам созревания фасоль делится на раннеспелую, созревающую в течение 65 дней, среднераннюю, срок созревания которой от 65 до 75 дней, среднюю со сроком созревания 75-85 дней, среднеспелую, которой для достижения спелости нужно от 85 до 100 дней, и позднюю, зреющую 100 и более дней.
По форме наземной части фасоль делят на кустовую или вьющуюся.
By taste and purpose, varieties of beans are divided into three groups: shelling or grain, sugar or asparagus and semi-sugar.
Shelling, or grain beans
It is grown to produce grains, because inside the pod it has a parchment layer that does not allow it to be used in food with the shell, like asparagus varieties. In the middle lane to cultivate such beans does not make sense, because it does not ripen, and in an immature form, shelling beans are inedible. Grain beans are grown quite successfully in warmer areas. The best varieties of shelling beans:
- – Gribovskaya 92 - bush, moderately branched variety of average ripening time (biological ripeness reaches 90 days), with green xiphoid pods up to 12 cm long,
- – Chocolate girl - medium-late bush beans up to 60 cm in height with straight, medium length brown pods resistant to shedding,
- – Mistress dream - mid-shrub variety with wide, long yellow pods, in which are white seeds with high protein content,
- – Ballad - low bushes of medium ripening period with green pods and beige grains in purple specks. The variety is drought tolerant and high in protein,
- – Golden - bushes up to 40 cm in height with curved golden-colored pods and high-taste yellow, rich in protein yellow seeds,
- – Ruby - mid-season bush beans with narrow pods, in which there are cherry-colored seeds, which have high taste qualities.
In addition to those described, the shelling beans of the varieties Oran, Barbara, Lilac, Nerussa, Generous, Yin-Yang, Pervomayskaya, Heliada, Svetlaya, Belozernaya, Ufa and Palevo-motley are popular.
Sugar, or asparagus, or vegetable beans
does not have a parchment layer inside the pod, like varieties of grain beans, so it can be eaten even with a pod. This is the most delicious beans of all varieties, it is often included in the diet menu, because it has the ability to remove excess moisture from the body. The color of the sugar bean pods can be green, brown, white or different shades of yellow. The most popular varieties of this group:
- – Purple queen - unpretentious, resistant to viruses and very fruitful bush variety of medium ripening with dark purple pods up to 15 cm long,
- – Crane - compact high-yielding and unpretentious bush up to 50 cm high with green, tender, fiberless pods,
- – Melody - early ripening grade requiring garters, with almost flat green fruits up to 13 cm in length. On the stalk, 8-9 pods are formed,
- – Oil king - bush early ripe fruitful grade with yellow pods of delicious taste,
- – Hell Rem - A curly variety with fruits of a pleasant mushroom taste and pinkish grains. Soup from the fruits of this variety has the aroma and taste of real mushrooms.
Asparagus varieties Winner, Panther, Oleniy Korol, Karamel, Fatima and Saksa 615 are also in demand.
characterized by the fact that the parchment layer inside its fruit is not as dense as in the pods of shelling varieties, or is formed late. At the early stage of development, the pods are edible, but later on, hard fibers appear unpleasant to taste. The most famous varieties of this group are:
- – Second - early ripe shrub variety with green pods up to 10 cm long with 5-6 yellow-brown seeds inside. In the technical ripeness phase, there are no dense partitions in the pod, but when biological ripeness occurs, dense fibers are formed in the fruit,
- – Welt - high-yield, resistant to ascohitoz and anthracnose bush varieties with green pods about 13 cm long, in which there are 5-6 seeds of pinkish-lilac color,
- – Indiana - early ripe shrub variety with white seeds in red patterns. In the southern regions of this bean fruits twice per season.
Of the varieties of half-sugar beans, besides those described, such ones as Antoshka, Fantasia and Nastena are known.
We start landing
String beans are very popular vegetables. But in order to get excellent fruits, learn how to grow it in the country. There are two ways by which you can grow beans in open ground. This is a seed and seedling method.
In order to grow beans with seeds, they must first be soaked. This is done so the seeds are placed in cotton fabric and well moistened. After three or four days, sprouts will appear. This is the time to plant them in the ground.
Another way is that the cut seeds are placed in containers with the substrate, waiting for shoots to appear. And about bypassing 15-20 days, you can plant in the open land.
For this vegetable crop, the soil must be loose and fertile. Haricot beans relate poorly to wetlands and to clayey soils. Since this vegetable is a plant - siderator, it is often planted to supply the land with nitrogen. An ideal place for her is a place after cabbage, potatoes, cucumbers and tomatoes. But after the planting of legumes should take at least three years.
Before planting the beans, in about three days, the earth is dug up and loosened. This is done to ensure that the soil received enough oxygen and warmed up. Usually curly beans are planted along the fence, but the bush on the beds.
The main features of the landing
Plan the planting of beans for about the first days of June, in order for it to have enough light and heat. Here are the basic landing rules:
- The distance between the holes - from 18 to 20 cm.
- Width between rows - from 45 to 50 cm.
- The depth of the hole is about 4–5 cm.
As soon as the process of planting is completed, it is necessary to water your crops well. If you want to see the shoots as soon as possible, we cover our beds, as if we are creating greenhouse conditions. Use in this case is allowed film.
Here we talk about when to plant beans and how to grow. But you should remember that a wonderful harvest will come when you pay attention to proper care. Some special care this culture is not needed. It only needs to be watered moderately and in a timely manner, sometimes weeding the beds, loosening the earth between the rows. Be sure to ensure that the bushes were healthy, and they did not overcome the disease. Detect the disease as soon as possible. It should be sprayed beans with sweet water. This will surely attract pollinating insects.
The irrigation process should be carried out every week. When the beans have not bloomed, she needs about six liters per square meter. As soon as the fruits begin to appear - double the displacement. Be sure to follow the watering, because both excess and lack of moisture adversely affect the yield of beans.
Usually, beans are not needed fertilizing and fertilizer, because it is enough of those nutrients that are in the soil and inherited from previous crops. If you have a low yield, you can feed a little rotted bird droppings or wood ash.
Frequent diseases and pests
As noted above, it is very important to detect the first symptoms of the disease. As a result of these actions, you can quickly eliminate the disease and make the plant healthy again. We list the most common fungal diseases that this vegetable crop can undergo:
Anthracnose - accompanied by the appearance of brown spots on the leaves and stems. Directly on the fruits appear deep damage, which are filled with pinkish mucus. Anthracnose leads to rotting of the fruit and complete loss of the harvest,
Root rot - slows development, begins dumping leaves and fruit ovaries. The roots and basal neck are covered with a white-pink bloom.
White rot - affects the stems and fruits of beans, a disease-causing mycelium appears white.
To defeat these diseases, use drugs with a high content of copper.
The main insects that are dangerous to the beans:
In addition to diseases, insect growth can influence the growth of beans and its development. Below they are also worth listing.
Bean weevil - this is a little brown bug. He lays his eggs inside the beans.
White fly - A rather small yellowish-white insect that feeds on the juice of unripe beans.
Gourd Aphid Is a multi-pest pest eating leaves and fruits of beans.
Fight insects with insecticides. At this point, spray the plant with sweet water is not necessary. If the season is rainy, the beans can attack the slugs. To get rid of them, they should be collected by yourself. Other ways of dealing with slugs have not yet been developed.
The process of collecting and storing crops
As you can see, the beans can grow freely in the open field. However, there should be a competent cultivation and, of course, high-quality care. Only in this case, tasty vegetable beans will appear.
When to start harvesting and how it is stored, then it depends directly on the type of bean. Here, for example, asparagus beans - removed from the bush immature. If you decide to conserve or freeze the beans, then it should also be harvested a little underripe. Ripe beans are harvested as they ripen. To understand whether the beans have ripened or not, the pod is broken into two parts; if it breaks simply, the beans are harvested (the edges of the pod are even and fiberless).
Dry the beans before storing them. This is done in the sun or in the oven. After that, they need to be folded into a canvas bag. There, put three - four cloves of garlic or dill seeds. This will help push away the bugs and keep the beans for a long time.