The mighty oak is a well-known deciduous tree, which is often used for landscaping parks and squares, creating picturesque alleys. Popularity deserved thanks to the resilience and undemanding to care, planted seedlings can grow in one place for more than 300 years. How to plant oak in the garden? The tree has a strong root system and sprawling crown, so it is difficult to grow it on a small plot. In this case, gardeners should pay attention to stunted, ornamental varieties.
Types and varieties of oak
In total, there are about 600 species of oak, in the wild they grow in the vast territory of the Northern Hemisphere, in temperate or tropical climates. For landscaping the most common English oak (common). The tree is tall, reaches a height of 30 m, the crown is spreading, the leaves are dark green, dense.
English oak varieties (undersized forms):
- Fastigiata Koster,
Another species that is also popular when grown in central Russia is red oak (northern). Incredibly beautiful due to the interesting color of the leaves. When blooming, they have a reddish tinge, in summer they turn completely green, and in autumn they turn crimson-red with a brown tint. The most popular variety is Aureus.
Planting oak seedlings
How to plant an oak tree and get on the site shady garden? Some gardeners prefer to grow a tree from an acorn, however, this method is quite long and laborious. For beginners, it is best to purchase a sapling in a specialized nursery. In this case, there is no doubt that the purchased plant will be of exactly the variety that is listed in the catalog. In addition, seedlings in local nurseries have already been adapted to the climatic features of the region and are taking root well in a new place.
Selection and transportation of oak seedlings
So that money is not wasted, saplings must be bought at the age of 1-2 years, they are the most viable and take root well. If a young oak is in a container, then there will be no problems with its delivery to the site. Open-root instances should be given special attention. So that during transportation the roots do not break or become light, they are wrapped in canvas. If the path is long, or the plant is not planted on the same day, the root system is wrapped with a damp cloth. It is not recommended to lower an oak sapling into a container with water, as it threatens to rot the root system.
How to plant oak (sapling) correctly? Before planting, the plant is carefully inspected and pruned broken, dry or rotted roots. Cut the rotted area to live wood. If the root system looks weak, the branches should be shortened by about a third of the length.
Site preparation and oak planting technology
Oak prefers sunny and spacious areas. Depending on the selected variety, the seedling should be planted at a distance of 3–6 m from other trees. Given that the root system is very powerful, is able to pierce the foundation, the nearest building should be at a distance of at least 3.5 m.
For successful growth of a tree, the soil in the area must be nutritious. The landing pit should be prepared in advance (20-25 days before the date of landing). It is best to root the sapling in spring when the soil is warm enough. How to plant an oak tree and prepare a landing hole for it? First you need to dig a plot, the pit should be 100x100x80 cm, where 80 cm is the depth. The earth is extracted in two stages: the top layer of the earth is laid in one direction, and the bottom - in the other, it is not used in the future. Drainage is poured at the bottom of the pit (a layer of 20 cm), as the material one can use small stones, crushed bricks. Further, the earth is mixed with fertilizers:
- rotted manure, humus or compost - 2 garden buckets,
- ash - 1 kg,
- double superphosphate - 1.5 kg,
- lime-pushonka - 1.5 kg,
- potassium chloride - 65 g,
- potassium sulfate - 65 g
One part of the prepared substrate is placed in a hole, and the second is left for the seedling powder. The young tree is planted in such a way that the root neck rises a little above the ground, but not more than 2.5 cm. During planting, the soil around the root system is carefully tamped so that no air pockets are left. At the end of the work, the seedling is watered using 10–15 liters of water, the soil surface is mulched with mowed grass, peat or humus.
Watering oak and fertilizing
In the first week after planting, the seedling is watered daily at the rate of 10–12 liters per 1 m² of land. In the future, it is necessary to control the level of soil moisture and air temperature, most often, oak is watered only during a prolonged drought. In the first year, the soil around the seedling is regularly loosened and weeds are removed. To facilitate your work, you can zamulchirovat near-stem circle wood chips, straw or peat. Layer thickness - 8–10 cm.
Since the second year, young oak is fertilized. The most effective method is the use of mineral granules. Well stimulates the growth of the root system and the seedling itself such fertilizer as Kemira-Universal. It contains all the trace elements necessary for the development of plants grown in open ground.
How to plant an oak tree and make it a beautiful, spherical crown? The tree structure provides for one central stem, which grows throughout its life. A few main stems are much less common. Depending on the desired result, different types of pruning are used, which are recommended once every 2 years. The most favorable time is the end of winter when the tree is at rest. By pinching the central stem of a young sapling, it is possible to achieve a more magnificent branching, but it should be noted that for some time the oak will stop its growth. Sanitary pruning, which is to remove dried and broken branches, can be done annually.
Preparing a young oak for winter
They planted an oak tree - how to protect a young, fragile seedling from winter frosts? An adult tree has good winter hardiness; young specimens will need to be looked after for the first few years. To protect the roots from freezing, the okolostvolny circle is covered with peat, humus or dry foliage. The branches of the tree gently bend down to the trunk and put a “cap” sewn from two-layer nonwoven fabric or burlap on top. If in the spring it turned out that part of the branches were still frozen, they should be cut to live wood. Places cuts and freezers on the trunk are treated with antiseptics and coated with garden pitch.
- Choosing a place, you need to count on the fact that the oak grows very quickly and strongly. Therefore, for its full development, you need enough space. If you plan to plant an alley, there must be a distance of at least 5-6 meters between the oaks.
- It is preferable to choose light and shade areas.
- Thanks to a powerful root system, he is not afraid of strong squall winds. This allows them to be planted in open areas.
- There are no strict soil requirements. For a tree, any soil with any acidity will do. The only detrimental factors for a tree can only be a surplus of moisture and calcareous soil.
- Fertilization during planting may affect growth and development. To do this, you can pour into the pit a mixture of leaf and turf soil, peat and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1: 2.
Purchase of seedlings
Oak sapling at home can be obtained by cutting or growing out of an acorn. Those who want to get a healthy strong seedling, it is recommended to purchase them in special nurseries.
When buying in the nursery Be sure to pay attention to the integrity of the earthy coma around the roots. If it is disturbed, then mycelium, which supports the normal development of the plant and viability, is also disturbed. In this case, the tree simply does not root.
How to plant red oak
The size of the pit depends on the size of the roots. At the bottom of the poured drainage (at least 15 cm) and the prepared nutritional mixture. At the same time, experienced gardeners are not advised to add ashes to the pit. For 7-10 days, the young plant should be watered moderately daily, avoiding overmoistening. After falling asleep pit, the root must be completely in the ground.
Features proper care for red oak
- Watering. Mature trees, which are already well established, practically do not require watering. But young oaks in the summer hot period require watering at least 1-2 times a week.
- Be sure to conduct loosening near young oaks. This will not only reduce the number of weeds, but also saturate the roots with oxygen.
- Mulching. Use peat or sawdust. Their layer must be at least 8-10 cm.
- Be sure to pruning wood. This removes only dry or damaged branches.
- Preparing for the winter. Adult oaks do not need shelter or protective measures before winter. But the trunk of the young, it is better to wrap a thick cloth and increase the layer of mulch before frost. This will reduce the risk of freezing.
Pests and diseases
Red oak is very rarely attacked by pests and diseases.
In rare cases, there may be a defeat of powdery mildew, oak leafworm, moth-eaters. Mildew is a very serious disease that cannot be completely cured. Therefore, it is better to take timely preventive measures. Dying off of branches or trunk may also appear. After severe frosts on the oak may appear cracks, which need to be applied antiseptic.
For the prevention of pests, you can prepare the tool yourself using tincture based on Kombucha. When spraying dilute 500 ml of infusion in 10 liters of water. Planting a tree in a well-lit place can also become a preventive measure.
Use red oak
- Landscaping. Used to create a landscape in large areas. It will ideally be combined with lindens, acacias and maples. It looks no less beautiful with spruce, barberry, juniper and coniferous trees. It is used to create oriental style, planting along with almonds, elder, thujas. In Europe, they grow not only for beauty, but also for the purpose of reducing noise and as wind protection in large cities. Valuable and its phytoncidal properties.
- The medicine. On the basis of leaves and bark produce medicinal infusions and tinctures, decoctions. Leaves and branches are used in the production of homeopathic medicines. They are used in the presence of varicose veins, eczema, diseases of the oral cavity, problems with the spleen and liver. Tinctures quickly improve blood circulation and strengthen the body's defenses. The same raw material is included in the composition and pharmacological preparations. It is better to prepare raw materials during sap flow, and leaves - in May. If you follow all the rules of collection and procurement, the material can be used for 4-5 years. You need to be careful with the use of folk recipes based on bark and oak leaves. They can be applied only after 12 years. Do not use with frequent constipation and thrombosis, in case of individual intolerance. Do not exceed recommended doses. Overdose can cause nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal disorder.
- The use of wood. Wood adult oak light brown hue. It has gained popularity due to its durability, strength and resistance to the influence of many factors. Used in the manufacture of furniture, parquet, barrels, caskets. Used in mining and shipbuilding. Ideal for polishing, but not for machining. It is used as a fuel, and as a material for the manufacture of paint.
Features of growing
Red oak tree tolerates frosts, likes lightbut can also grow in partial shade. Due to the deep root system, it is windproof. The soil fertility is very undemanding, does not tolerate excessively wet soil and land with a high content of limestone.
Such a beautiful plant like red oak will look very harmonious with yellow colors: maple, linden, yellow acacia. It is perfectly combined with various coniferous trees and bushes (spruce, barberry, Chinese juniper). Also, oak is suitable for creating an oriental-style garden, combined with rhododendrons, almonds, thujas and elderberries.