Peach - short-lived plant. It is characterized by rapid entry into the phase of fruiting, intensive growth.
Peach buds have the ability to quickly wake up and release young shoots. Crohn grows and if it is not thinned, starting from the second year, the yield will decrease.
From the fourth year peaches will become small and deformed. Young trees begin to bear fruit in the second year after planting. With good care can give a harvest in the first year, during the autumn planting.
But do not allow this to happen. It is better to let the plant grow. Harvest small and the time will be spent, and the plant will lose power.
Juicy peach variety
In the past, gardeners dreamed of peaches, which can be grown in all regions of the country, and not just in the south.
Today, their dreams have come true: breeders have brought out many interesting winter-hardy, frost-resistant varieties with different periods of fruiting, fruit shapes and taste.
Peach trees are divided into four groups (depending on the shape of the fruit):
- This peach is a plant with pubescent fruits.
- Nectarine or hollow peach.
- Peach Potanin (Almond Potanin).
- Fergana peach or fig (fruit flattened).
The time of ripening of fruits, flowering period - it all depends not only on the area where the tree is grown, but also on the characteristics of the variety:
- Early ripe varieties give the first fruits from July to August.
- Mid-season enter the fruiting phase in early August and delight in the harvest until September.
- Late peaches ripen in autumn: September, early October.
The yield of the plant depends on the correct choice of variety. When buying a seedling, you need to pay attention to several important points, we give their description:
- Where did the sapling come from. If the nursery is in another lane, then the seedling may die in the first year after planting or will constantly freeze. The variety must be zoned, and the nursery is located in the same climatic zone (preferably even in the same region) where the tree will grow.
- Inspection of graft site. It should be smooth and even, without bumps and frozen juice.
- Plant root system should have a fibrous shape. Root in one trunk - no good.
One-year saplings take root better and delight the harvest faster. When buying, it is better to focus on them, but choose strong, healthy plants, and not frail twigs.
Ripen early: Kiev Early, White Swan, Grisborough and Redhaven, Morettini
The peculiarity of early ripening varieties is that they quickly enter the fruiting phase. Two-, three-year-old saplings already produce a small crop. Peak yields in the fourth or fifth year after planting.
Among the representatives of this group, varieties deserve special attention. Kievan Early, White Swan and Redhaven.
Redhaven's peak yield is eleven years. More than one hundred kilograms of fruits are harvested from one tree.The best early varieties of peaches: Kiev Early, White Swan, Grisboro and Redhaven, Morettini
Each variety of early peach in its own good and has a lot of advantages.
Advantages of early peach varieties:
- form a wide crown with a height of not more than 5 meters,
- plants bloom in April-May,
- enter fruiting phase quickly: in the fourth year after planting the seedling,
- fruiting stretched from July to August
- characterized by high yield, fragrant and tasty fruits.
The first fruits appear on an adult, well-formed tree. This can not affect the yield: with a six-year tree, with proper care, you can collect up to 60 kilograms of peaches.
Another bright representative of this group - Griesborough variety. It is distinguished by an average growth force, but, unlike the above-mentioned varieties, it has an average winter hardiness.
High winter hardiness peach morettini. One of its advantages is the spreading crown, which is easily shaped.
Morettini fruits ripen one of the first, but have an average transportability. It does not allow to transport fruit over long distances.
Mid-term ripening: Collins, Cardinal, Golden Moscow, Siberian, Saturn, Kremlin, Don
Varieties of medium ripening allow the peach conveyor to continue.
The peculiarity of plants of this species:
- high sprawling crown (from 5 meters),
- high yield,
- good winter hardiness
- large fruits.
Mid-season peaches have a huge number of varieties, but among them there are several species that ideally show themselves in any conditions and do not require special care: Collins, Cardinal, Golden Moscow, Siberian, Saturn, Kremlin.
Grade Cardinal famous for its huge fruits (from 140 g) and excellent taste. This is one of the most delicious peach species. On the international tasting scale, he received five points. This is the highest rating.
The plant is resistant to diseases, but it is difficult to tolerate recurrent frosts. It is better to plant it on a windless place, not far from the wall of the house or the fence, but far from water.The best grades of peaches of average term of maturing: Collins, Cardinal, Golden Moscow, Siberian, Saturn, Kremlin, Don
Kremlin peach adapts without any problems to the change of temperature, has a high winter hardiness. Because of this, he attracted the attention of gardeners from regions where the summer is cool. With good care the fruits reach 200 g.
Golden Moscow variety recently appeared on the market, but its seedlings are very popular. The plant winters well and is resistant to diseases, has juicy large fruits.
The fruiting period is stretched for almost three weeks. Peach blooms late, after the threat of frost return, and this increases the number of high-quality fruits.
Sort Siberian Farmed by farmers for their excellent transportability. Yellow fruits can be stored in a cold room for up to three weeks. In addition, they are tasty and juicy, and the bone is easily separated from the pulp.
The first crop is harvested in August, and the last fruits are removed in early September.
Peach Saturn stored no longer than 12 days. This is also a lot. The plant has a high winter hardiness (up to -27). Vigorous crown complicates care and this affects the yield.
If you tilt the branches down, you can get a great harvest every year.
The most winter hardy representative of this group is Donskoy peach. It not only withstands severe frosts, but also quickly recovers after freezing.
Most varieties have juicy flesh and pleasant aroma.. High crown can be regarded as a disadvantage, but with the correct formation of the tree, it is easily eliminated and turns into dignity.
Late, frost-resistant: Fury, Frost, Veteran
They planted a peach, but it does not bear fruit, it only intensively increases the crown? Do not be upset: it is better to be patient and wait a little longer.
Late-ripening varieties of fruit from 5 years after planting the seedling. They are intended for cultivation in the southern regions. In the North and in the Middle zone, they do not have time to mature and are acidic.
American Fury grade can withstand temperatures down to -28 degrees. It is appreciated for huge, up to 300 g, orange-colored fruits. The plant is undemanding to care.
Fruit picking falls in September, when only apples and pears remain in the garden. Fruits are stored no longer than six days.
Variety Frost also bred by American breeders who emphasized the winter hardiness and large size of the plant.
The tree gives a high stable yield, can withstand temperatures up to -26 degrees, resistant to diseases. Fruits are used for fresh food. Stored for ten days.The best late ripening peaches: Fury, Frost, Veteran
Sort Veteran differs from late ripening varieties in that it quickly enters the phase of fruiting and has a low growth. The size of the fruit is also not impressive (not more than 150 g).
They love him for good taste. It is ideal for conservation.
Self-pollinated, self-fertile peaches: Inca, Volcano, Harnas, Golden Jubilee
Self-pollinated varieties are very popular with gardeners. To enhance fruiting, recommend planting several plants for cross-pollination. But one little tree will also bear fruit.
Among self-pollinated, samoplodnyh varieties a good harvest in a single planting gives Inca, Volcano, Harnas, Golden Jubilee.
Harnas belongs to the winter-hardy, early-ripe dessert varieties. This is a vigorous tree that bears fruit regularly. Its peculiarity is that the fruits cling tightly to the branches and do not fall.
Early ripening varieties are characterized by high winter hardiness of trees and flower buds. They withstand recurrent frosts. This makes it possible to grow them not only in southern latitudes, but also in the middle belt, as well as in Siberia and the Urals.Self-drinking peach varieties: Inca, Volcano, Harnas, Golden Jubilee
In the regions of Siberia, it is necessary to protect the trees from returning frosts.
Mid-season varieties build up a decent crown and only then delight the rich harvest. Their disadvantage is that it is difficult to form branches, but a regular and generous harvest allows you to turn a blind eye to it.
The branches of mid-season varieties often bend downward, which facilitates the harvest.
Lack of late ripening varietiesthat they can only grow in a certain area. But if the climatic conditions allow, then these trees will not only decorate the garden, but will also delight with tasty fruits.
Plants respond favorably to fertilizing and watering. Water plays a big role in the formation of fruits. Not only the size of peaches, but also their taste and aroma depend on its quantity.
Give your saplings a little attention and care so that they can turn into beautiful trees and make crops happy every year.
Variety Ruby 8 is also bred by breeders of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden. The tree is medium tall, 3-3.5 meters high, with a cup-shaped crown. Early variety - in Crimea, the fruits ripen in early August, in the cooler northern regions fruit ripening occurs later.
The fruits are large, weighing 180-200 grams, if the tree is overloaded with fruits, the size and weight of each of them will be smaller. Too high a crop is an unbearable load for the branches - they begin to break. To avoid these problems, part of the ovary should be removed at the beginning of the formation, put support under the most prolific branches.
The shape of the nectarines is round, yellowish in color with a crimson blush. The skin is smooth, without gun and wax film. The flesh is juicy, crunchy, dense, sweet-sour.
Nectarines are suitable for freezing, preserving, preparing various confectionery products. Thanks to the pleasant color can serve as decoration for the table, both festive and everyday.
Ruby 8 must be protected from powdery mildew and other fungal diseases, especially if the summer was dreary and cool. He has no resistance to these problems.
The variety of nectarine Skiff - the work of the Crimean breeders. The tree is tall, up to 7 meters high, with a powerful pyramidal crown. The tree grows especially fast at a young age, then the period of fruiting begins, and growth slows down. The leaves of Skif are large, up to 17 cm long and 4 cm wide.
But the fruits of the most common sizes - their weight is 120-180 grams. They are round, with a smooth, shiny skin. The color typical of nectarines is yellow with a red or pink blush. The flesh is dense, but juicy, sweet-sour and aromatic. Stone separates easily.
Ripening begins in mid-August; ripe fruits are stored in the fridge for about a week. For transportation and storage without a fridge, they are ripped off a bit underripe.
The Scythian is very much in need of sunlight, apparently, and therefore reaches for the sun so much. Loves warmth, tolerates summer heat and dry winds well. But in this weather it needs to be watered more frequently and abundantly.
The yield is high, up to 70 kg, but to such a condition the tree should grow and develop well. Among the advantages of Skiff - frost resistance and a pleasant taste of fruits that can be consumed fresh or in canned form.
Variety Lola bred in Uzbekistan. It is distinguished by such qualities as early ripening - the fruits are very sweet, ripen in late July or early August, large-fruited - nectarines weigh 200-210 grams, an excellent presentation.
The trees are 5-6 meters high, the crown is wide and round, not very spreading. Fruits are round, abdominal suture is weak. The skin is smooth, greenish-cream in color, dark red blush is not distributed over the entire surface. The pulp is fibrous, sweet, white, the bone is medium in size, it separates poorly.
Despite its southern origin, winter hardiness is not bad, fruit buds can withstand short-term temperature drops to -20 degrees.
The Fantasia variety is a product of University of California breeders. He was born as a result of the crossing of Red King and Gold King varieties. Thermophilous variety, in Russia it can be grown only in the southern regions and in the Crimea.
The tree is medium in size, 3-4 meters in height, the fruits ripen in early September. They are dense and strong, they are stored for about a week without a refrigerator, they carry the transportation well.
Nectarines are yellow-red in color, weighing 200-210 grams. The flesh is crispy, the color is yellow, with pink dots near the middle-sized bone, very tasty. In well-ripened fruit, the bone is easily separated from the pulp.
The variety is characterized by high resistance to drought and hot weather. It is highly immune to leaf curl.
The average yield is up to 30 kg per tree, but to a large extent depends on the care, age of the tree and climate.
Variety Wang 3 American, early ripening, the fruits ripen in mid-July.
Trees are compact, up to 5 meters high. Fruits are orange, with a red blush over the entire surface. They are not too large - weighing 150-180 grams, but dense and transportable. The flesh is yellow, juicy and dense, with a wonderful taste and aroma. Stone separates well.
Trees are winter-hardy and high-yielding. At the time of fruiting enter 3-4 years from the time of planting. Over time, give up to 50-60 kg of nectarines.
The variety is resistant to typical diseases, but only in warm and dry summers. If there are no other nectarines and peaches, prone to powdery mildew, processing can not be carried out.
Nectarine variety Yantarny is bred in Ukraine, and can be grown throughout the territory of this country, as well as in Moldova and in southern Russia.
In general, the tree of this variety is no different from most nectarines and peaches. The height is average, the leaves are oblong, the crown is round, cup-shaped. The ripening time of the fruit is medium, it is harvested in September.
In a ripe form, they look very decorative and attractive, according to reviews of gardeners, because of their beauty, seem artificial. The color of the fruit is gently red with yellow, the taste is not inferior - it is sweet and fragrant. Medium or small weight - 75-115 grams. The pulp is slightly fibrous, but juicy. The skin is smooth, without wax coating. Stone in mature fruit easily lags behind.
Fruits are good in any form - fresh and processed, but they are picked up slightly under-ripe for transportation.
The variety is quite cold-resistant, suitable for growing in areas with moderately cold winters. Resistance to frost at -25 degrees.
Productivity is 35-40 kg from one adult tree. Thanks to these indicators, the variety can be grown on small household farms and in farmers' gardens.
The history of the origin of nectarine is still a mystery. Most botanists believe that this is a product of natural breeding, a complex interspecific hybrid created by nature itself. In their opinion, peach, plum, apricot and even quince and almonds took part in the process of pollination. And perhaps other plants belonging to the family of pink. In favor of this point of view is the fact that, from time to time, from time to time on the peach trees without any participation on the part of the farmer, "bald" fruits are suddenly ripening. But the facts of the reverse is not marked.
There is another point of view, according to which nectarine is the result of purposeful crossing of peach with plum. It is confirmed by the fact that this fruit tree has been cultivated in China for more than 2 thousand years, but in the rest of the world, the existence of culture became known only in the 16th century.
Flowering nectarine tree looks very elegant, besides attracts insect pollinators
Most varieties of nectarine ripen simultaneously with peaches, for this they need from 3 to 5 months. The culture is distinguished by its precocity - the first crop is already harvested 3-4 years after planting the tree in open ground. But the period of productive tree life is small - no more than 30 years. The average yield is 30–50 kg per adult plant.
Nectarine is not only tasty, but also very useful. First of all, it is possible to note the high content of vitamins A and C, calcium. Moreover, the benefits persist after heat treatment. The calorie content of the fruit is low, so this is a very nice addition to any diet.The fiber and amino acids contained in the fruits normalize the digestion process, helping the body to digest and process fatty foods, remove slags and toxins from the intestines, and have a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, being an effective prevention of atherosclerosis and reducing high blood pressure. A decoction of the leaves of the adherents of traditional medicine treat migraines and diseases of the joints. Nectarine seed oil is widely used in cosmetology.
Popular with gardeners varieties
There are many varieties of nectarine, but mostly large-fruited are popular with gardeners.
Most often grown the following varieties:
- Stark red gold Nectarine, originally from the USA, is one of the “clones” of the Sangrend variety, the result of free pollination. Fruits are large, one-dimensional, regular shape weighing 175-210 g, ripen in the second decade of August. The pulp of sunny-yellow color is dense, very sweet, the bone is easily separated from it. The skin is bright scarlet,
- Nectarine-4. Bred in the United States in the 60s of the last century. Differs in quite good frost resistance and high immunity to fungal diseases. Harvest ripen in the first decade of August. Fruits of medium size (about 150 g), almost round. The stone is small, the flesh is dark yellow, the skin is purple. Brings harvest no matter how lucky the weather is in summer,
- Fantasy (Fantasy). Differs in growth rate and flowering abundance. The variety is highly resistant, rarely suffers from diseases and pests. The weight of the fruit varies from 130 to 180 g. The skin is golden with vague spots of reddish blush, the flesh is pale yellow with scarlet veins. This is practically the standard for taste. The variety is one of the most popular with industrial producers. The fruits are used to make candied fruit and juice,
- Ruby-7. The variety is very popular due to the high yield and excellent taste of the fruit. It belongs to the category of late - nectarines ripen in the last decade of August. The fruits are round, with dark scarlet skin, weigh about 170 g. The flesh is bright yellow, sometimes with pinkish veins. It is very juicy and tender, it literally melts in your mouth. Winter hardiness is high, but the tree is often exposed to attacks of disease-causing fungi and harmful insects,
- Scythian. The variety is one of the many achievements of the Kiev Institute of Horticulture. The tree is 6–7 m high, the crown is elongated, in the shape of a pyramid. Early flowering occurs in mid-April, but flower buds tolerate return frost quite well. The skin of the fruit is yellow, but it is almost not visible under the almost continuous layer of dense red blush. The average weight of nectarine is 110–150 g,
- Crimean. The variety has a very high drought tolerance, tolerates heat well. The tree is low, with a compact rounded crown. The fruits are almost regular spherical in shape, one-dimensional, weighing 160–170 g. The peel is golden, glossy shiny, dense. Because of this, the fruit tolerates transportation,
- Lola. The variety is originally from Uzbekistan, it has a very high sugar content. The nectarines are small, weighing about 90 g. The skin is greenish-yellow, covered with spots of reddish blush. The flesh is pale yellow or almost white, fibrous. A significant disadvantage is the exposure to powdery mildew and moniliosis,
- Favorite. Variety of Ukrainian breeding. Tree up to 4 m high, spreading crown. The fruits are large, weighing 170–180 g. The skin is yellowish cream, with a pinkish blush. Sweet taste with spicy sourness,
- Stark sanglow. Very popular variety, especially at home, in the United States. The tree is 4–5 m high, the crown is in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Fruits are asymmetrical (one half is noticeably larger than the other), with a purple-burgundy peel. The flesh is juicy, very sweet, bright yellow. It rarely suffers from culture-typical diseases and pests, it is never affected by powdery mildew,
- Crimson Gold. The most common variety in Ukraine. It is appreciated for consistently high yield, precociousness, good frost resistance and amazing fruit taste. Nectarines are not too large, weighing up to 120 g. Yellowish skin is covered with spots of crimson or crimson blush. The flesh is very juicy,
- Big top. One of the latest achievements of breeders. It is allocated with large-fruited and high productivity. Tree height of 3-4 m, crown compact, rounded. The crop ripens at the very beginning of August or even at the end of July. Fruits are oval, with dark scarlet skin and yellowish juicy pulp. The bone is separated from it very easily. The average weight of the fetus - 200-220 g,
- Hemus. A vigorous tree with a spreading crown. Winter hardiness is average. Fruits are round, one-dimensional, fairly small (90–120 g). The taste is balanced, sweet and sour. The flesh is juicy, very fragrant. Pinkish red skin,
- Harco. The tree is compact, low. Fruits already on the 2-3rd year after disembarkation. Nectarines weighing 100–120 g, the skin is dark maroon, the flesh is bright yellow, very juicy. Productivity is high, winter resistance is not bad,
- Arctic Snow. Nectarines weighing 180–200 g. The yellow-orange peel is completely hidden by a bright scarlet blush. The flesh is pale yellow, almost white, very fragrant. Productivity - up to 60 kg from an adult tree,
- May Diamond Appreciated for excellent taste and large size of the fruit. The average weight of nectarine is 220 g, the skin is very dark red with a purple tint. Harvest ripen in late August. The shape of the fruit varies from almost round to elongated oval,
- Rebus-028. Very early variety originally from Italy. Prized for high winter hardiness, genetically integrated immunity to most common fungal diseases and yield. Fruits weighing about 200 g, elongated. The skin is bright scarlet, the flesh is yellow, dense, but very juicy,
- Poseidon. Achievement of Russian breeders. Fruits are small, weighing 80–90 g. Yellow skin with a pink-red blush in the form of fine strokes. Pulp of the same color with reddish veins, sweet-sour to taste, very juicy,
- Septem queen. Variety late maturity. Pale green skin is almost completely hidden crimson blush. Fruits are medium in size (150–170 g). The flesh is creamy yellow, sweet and sour, very juicy and aromatic.
Planting procedure and preparation for it
Nectarine is a southern culture, so the main thing it needs is sunlight and heat. It is advisable to choose a place for a sapling so that from the north at some distance there is a wall of the building, a fence, another natural or artificial barrier that creates protection from cold wind gusts without obscuring the tree.
Well suited southern or southeastern slope of a gentle hill. But any lowlands immediately excluded. There is a long time there is rain and melt water, cold raw air accumulates. Dampness at the roots of nectarine does not like, therefore, do not fit, and places where groundwater come close to the surface. Soil culture prefers light but fertile (loam, sandy loam). In a heavy clay, silty, peat substrate, nectarine takes root very poorly and practically does not bear fruit. He also does not tolerate saline soil at all.
Nectarine can be planted in autumn and spring. They focus on the climate in a particular region. If it is moderate, the only option is spring planting. Over the summer, the tree will get stronger enough to survive the winter. When disembarking in the fall, it is likely that the cold will come much earlier than provided by the calendar. This option is only suitable for the southern regions. The optimal time for the procedure is the first two decades of September. Before the frost, the tree will have time to prepare for wintering.
Seedlings older than 2 years take root in a new place not too willingly
When planting several nectarine trees simultaneously, at least 3 m are left between them (preferably 3.5–4 m). The spacing between the rows of plantings is 4–5 m. It is advisable to place them away from peaches and any other plants from the Pink family, in order not to provoke the spread of pathogenic fungi and restrain attacks of pests.
Bad forerunners are any nightshade and garden strawberries.
The optimal depth and diameter of the landing pit for nectarine is about 70 cm. If you need support, a stake is put in the bottom, the height of which is at least twice the height of the seedling. A third of the pit is filled with fertile soil extracted from it (top 15–20 cm), mixed with 10–15 l of humus or rotten compost, 150 g of simple superphosphate and 80 g of potassium sulphate. Then it needs to be closed with something waterproof and allowed to stand for at least 2 weeks.
When spring planting pit is prepared in the fall.
Nectarine pit is always prepared in advance.
Annual or biennial nectarine seedlings are best tolerated. Acquire them necessarily in nurseries or in specialized stores. Buying from the hands of unknown people at fairs is a big risk. It is desirable that the seedlings were grown in the same area where the garden plot. These trees are better adapted to the climate in the region.
Planting nectarine, like any fruit tree, is better together - it is more convenient
Planting nectarine seedlings in the ground has very few distinctive features compared with the same procedure for other fruit trees. Be sure to follow the position of the root collar, not falling asleep to it. After planting, the tree needs abundant watering (40–50 l of water at room temperature) and radical pruning (the center conductor is shortened by 15–20 cm, side shoots, if they exist, by about half). Then it is advisable to pour humus or fertile soil to the trunk, as if spuding a tree.
After landing the nectarine must be well watered
Recommendations for the care of culture
Nectarine is a rather demanding in the care of the plant, so it is advisable to first get acquainted with the agrotechnical recommendations.
Nectarine is a moisture-loving plant, but when water stagnates at the roots, rot develops quickly. The root system is superficial; it is not able to pull water out of the deep layers of the soil. In extreme heat, if there is no precipitation for a long time, the tree is watered 2–3 times a week, spending 40–50 l of water per adult plant. In other cases, it is enough to take 10–12 days. Mulch will help retain moisture in the soil, as well as save time for weeding.
The root system of nectarine is superficial, so it is watered as soon as the topsoil dries out
About a month before harvesting, watering is stopped. This will help avoid cracking fruits, improve their taste and increase the size by about a third.
If autumn is droughty, in the middle of October, moisture-charging irrigation is carried out so that the tree can normally prepare for winter. About 80 liters of water are consumed per adult plant.
In a properly prepared landing pit, there are enough nutrients for the next season. Fertilizers begin to make from the second year.
- In early spring, the soil in the wheel circle is carefully loosened, at the same time introducing 10–15 g of any nitrogen-containing fertilizer per 1 m². An alternative is to sprinkle wood with a 7% urea solution. Such a procedure, if carried out before the kidneys swell, helps to get rid of the spores of pathogenic fungi, destroy eggs and larvae of pests. Once every 2–3 years, 25–30 l of humus or rotted compost can be introduced into the soil to increase its fertility.
- Since the formation of the ovaries, every 2–3 weeks is carried out by foliar feeding, spraying the leaves with a solution of potassium sulfate (25 g per 10 l of water). Thanks to this procedure, the sugar content in the pulp increases, the color of the fruit becomes more saturated.
- Two to three weeks after harvesting, the soil in the bore circle is loosened and 25-30 g of phosphorus and potash fertilizers are introduced. You can use and complex drugs (AVA, Autumn). Nitrogen at this time of year is strictly prohibited.
Pruning for nectarine is a very important procedure. If it is neglected, the fruits gradually "move" to the very tops of the branches, the crown thickens, the shoots located below and in the middle dry and die. At the same time flower buds are formed only on the shoots of this year.
The optimal time for pruning is from the moment the buds swell until the end of flowering. It is necessary to get rid of all the shoots that have frozen out during the winter, broken under the weight of snow. Also cut off the weak, deformed, unsuccessfully located branches, thickening the crown, growing down and deep into it. It should be evenly lit and warmed by the sun.
When pruning get rid of weak, deformed, damaged branches.
Another important point - thinning fruit ovaries. The procedure is carried out when they reach approximately the size of a bean. First you need to tear off all the small and deformed nectarines, then leave on each shoot no more than five pieces at approximately equal intervals (15–20 cm). In this case, the fruits will be larger and sweeter.
Do not forget about formative pruning. Most often, the crown of peach and nectarine give the configuration of the "bowl", which is characterized by the absence of a pronounced central shoot. The height of the trunk before the start of branching is limited to 60–70 cm, then 1-2 tiers of 4–5 shoots are formed, located around it at approximately equal intervals. It is desirable that they depart from the trunk at an angle of about 45-50º. On each such shoot, 4–5 branches of the second and third order are left, choosing those that grow upwards. The remaining shoots are removed.
The formation of a crown of nectarine in the form of a "bowl" or "vase" allows you to create a tree, evenly lit and warmed by the sun
Non-fertilizing shoots are recommended to pinch 10–15 cm annually in order to stimulate their further branching.
Preparing for the winter
Nectarine is a southern plant, so even in regions with a warm subtropical climate, it is better to insure yourself and properly prepare it for winter. This is especially true of young saplings under the age of 5 years.
Pristvolny circle cleared of debris and mulch with humus or peat chips, creating a layer thickness of 20-25 cm. The procedure is carried out in dry weather, so as not to provoke the development of rot.
The trunk to the first fork and the lower third of the branches are whitened. Store formulations can be used or self-prepared mixture of water with slaked lime, powdered clay, copper sulphate and stationery glue. Then the base of the barrel is wrapped with several layers of burlap, any breathable covering material, or just nylon pantyhose. You can place branches of any coniferous trees between them - this will protect the wood from attacks of rodents.
Mulch and whitewashing trunks - mandatory measures in preparing the garden for the winter
Young saplings are put on suitable cardboard boxes, filling them with sawdust, shavings, and scraps of newsprint. It is undesirable to use straw - mice often lodge in it. You can also build around the "hut" of several laths, wrapping it with a sacking cloth or throwing it with spruce branches.
Nectarine Breeding Methods
Amateur gardeners generally propagate vegetative nectarine by grafting. Only this method completely guarantees the preservation of varietal characteristics. In principle, it is possible to grow a new tree from a seed, but it will have to wait for a harvest for a long time and it is absolutely impossible to predict the result. As a rule, there are few fruits, and they are quite small. This is mainly engaged in professional breeders who want to bring a new variety. Amateur gardeners nectarine grown from bone may be useful as a stock.
Peach, apricot or almond is used as a stock for nectarine. If the soil or climate for the culture is not very suitable, take a plum or plum. It is possible to inoculate as a whole stalk (apex of a shoot about 30 cm long with 2/3 leaves cut off), and a single growth bud (the so-called budding).
In the first case, the thickness of the scion and stock should be about the same. The made slanting cuts are combined or the graft is inserted into the cleft on the rootstock sprout. In the second, a growth kidney, cut together with a “flap” of tissues about 2 mm thick and 2–3 cm wide, is inserted into a Y-, T- or X-shaped incision on the cortex. The instrument must be disinfected and sharply sharpened. It is advisable to use a scalpel or razor blade.
Graft splitting is applied if the graft and stock vary greatly in diameter.
Then the whole structure is securely fixed using tape, adhesive plaster or special grafting tape. It is possible to judge whether the procedure was successful in 2-3 months. A new shoot should start to form from the bud, young leaves on the handle. In this case, all side shoots on the stock below the grafting site are cut to the point of growth.
Budding is a rather complicated method of vaccination, which requires a certain experience from a gardener.
The pits are extracted from large and ripe fruits. Necessarily the absence of cracks and other damages on them. Nectarines should not be purchased, but grown in the same area. Before planting, they are soaked for 3 days in water at room temperature, changing it twice a day, and then dried well. Можно добавить в неё перманганат калия до бледно-розового цвета (для дезинфекции) или любой биостимулятор (для повышения всхожести).
Косточки нектарина перед высадкой обязательно замачивают
Высаживают их той же осенью в грядку, сделав борозды глубиной 5–6 см. Расстояние между семенами — не менее 20 см. Траншеи засыпают перегноем, обильно поливают, закидывают палой листвой, скошенной травой или опилками.
The procedure can be postponed until spring, but in this case stratification is obligatory - during the winter, the bones are stored in a refrigerator, in a container filled with wet peat or sand.
In spring, the shelter is removed from the garden, before the shoots appear, the soil is tightened with plastic film. Germination is not more than 20%, so the planting material need to stock up in excess. Practice shows that late-ripening varieties have this indicator slightly higher.
When planting nectarine seeds, you need to remember that the germination rate is only 20%
As the bed dries, moderately watered with a spray bottle. As soon as the seedlings hatch, the shelter is removed. Further care for them is in the careful loosening of the soil, regular watering, dressing with diluted water with humus every 2-3 weeks. To prevent the development of fungal diseases, they are sprayed at the same frequency with a solution of any fungicide of biological origin (Thiovit, Ridomil-gold).
Typical culture diseases and pests
Nectarine, like peach, often suffers from diseases and pests. Many modern varieties have high immunity, but the breeders are not yet able to fully protect them from these evils. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the prevention and proper care of plants.
Common nectarine diseases:
- powdery mildew. The first sign is a grayish-white bloom on the leaves, starting from the lowest. Gradually, it "compacted" and changes color to brown-brown. Affected leaves and shoots cease to grow, turn black and die off. Winter hardiness of the tree is sharply reduced. For prevention, swollen kidneys are sprayed with 2% copper sulfate or bordeaux liquid. During the vegetative season, the soil in the circle is sprinkled with crushed chalk, wood ash, colloidal sulfur, and then loosened well. Leaves are sprayed with kefir or whey diluted with water. To combat the disease use Kvadris, Bayleton, Topsin-M, Topaz, other fungicides,
- leaf curl. The most common disease of nectarine and peach, affects young leaves. Light green swellings appearing on them gradually change color to rusty or reddish brown, and they are tightened with a layer of wax coating. The leaves turn black, dry and fall off. Shoots turn yellow, thicken and deform. For prophylaxis in the early spring and autumn after harvesting, nectarine is treated with HOM or Skor, the soil in the near-stem circle is sprinkled with tobacco dust. All affected leaves and branches are immediately cut and burned. Folk remedies have no effect, therefore, Abiga-Peak, Kuprozan,
- klyasterosporioz. On the leaves there are numerous small rounded beige spots with bright crimson or burgundy border. After about 12–15 days, the infected tissues die off, holes are formed. Leaves dry and fall off. Then the disease goes to the fruit - the spots on them grow, their surface hardens, then this crust falls off, leaving a recess from which the gum oozes. For prevention, leaf buds in the green cone phase are sprayed with Nitrafen or 1% Bordeaux liquid. The procedure is repeated immediately after flowering and 2–3 weeks after harvest. At the first suspicious symptoms, Kuproksat, Skor, Horus,
- monilioz Brown-black fast-growing spots appear on the fruit. Their surface is covered with greyish-beige small outgrowths, arranged in concentric circles. The flesh darkens, becomes unpleasant mealy, almost loses its taste. There are such nectarines not recommended. Immediately after flowering, fruit ovaries are sprayed with 1% copper sulfate. During the season for prevention can use the infusion of wood ash. To combat the use of fungicides of biological origin - Gamair, Trichodermin, Alirin-B, Fitosporin,
- cytosporosis. The flowers turn brown, dry, but do not fall. The bark acquires an unnatural yellowish or brick shade, "urinates." On the affected areas appear small dark growths - containers of fungal spores. Especially often weakened trees suffer from the disease, so the best prevention is competent care. Damaged areas of the bark cut off. Wounds must be treated with 2% copper sulfate (folk remedy - gruel from sorrel leaves) and cover with garden pitch or covered with oil paint in several layers. In the fall, the affected trees are sprayed with a solution of boric acid and zinc sulfate (1–2 g per 1 l of water),
- scab. A plant affected by scab is not likely to die, but the quantity and quality of the fruit will decrease dramatically. Most often suffer from scab old trees. The peel of the fruit is covered with inconspicuous light spots, which are gradually tightened with a layer of velvety olive plaque. Then it changes color to black and gray. The tissues in these places harden, the surface of the spots crack, the nectarines deform and fall. For the prevention of early spring, the soil in the circle of the circle is sprayed with 7–10% solution of urea or ammonium nitrate, and the tree itself, until the buds are dismissed - Skorom or 3% Bordeaux liquid. From folk remedies, a solution of ordinary table salt is suitable - 1 kg per 10 liters of water. All affected by the scab fruits are collected and destroyed. To combat the disease using any fungicides.
Photo Gallery: How are typical for nectarine disease
Nectarines and pests are often attacked. The most common culture suffers from the following insects:
- plum moth. Grayish-brown butterflies lay eggs in newly formed fruit ovaries. The larvae that emerge from them consume the flesh of nectarines from the inside. Then they go outside, leaving a drop of amber liquid - gum on the skin of the damaged fruit. Affected nectarines fall off before they mature. The peak of butterfly activity is at the beginning of summer. To scare them away, the trees are sprayed with infusions of any herbs with a strong odor. Good pheromone traps and sticky belts give a good effect. Newly formed ovaries are treated with Karbofos. About a month later, the procedure is repeated. For the control of adults, Lepidocide and Bitoxibacillin are used, and Fitoverm, Alatar, Kinmiks, and
- aphid. Small insects cling to the wrong side of leaves, tops of shoots, flower buds and fruit ovaries. They feed on the sap of the plant, so its affected parts turn pale, dry out. At the same time, a sticky, colorless liquid and a black bloom like a powder - a soot fungus - appear. Any sharp odors for aphids are very unpleasant. Therefore, it can be frightened off with the help of onions of onion or garlic, wormwood, tops of tomatoes, marigolds, orange peel, mustard powder. The frequency of treatment is once every 5–10 days. If there are few pests, these infusions will help to get rid of them, but the trees will need to be sprayed 3-4 times a day. To fight with aphids, they use any insecticides of general effect - Inta-Vir, Konfidor-Maxi, Iskra-Bio, Tanrek, Mospilan,
- schitovka. On the branches and the inside of the leaves appear rounded growths of a grayish-brown color. Gradually they swell, surrounding tissues acquire an unnatural reddish-yellow shade. The leaves turn brown, dry. For prevention, nectarine trees are sprayed with an infusion of onion or garlic gruel, ground red pepper. Folk remedies in the fight against the shield are ineffective, the pest reliably protects the durable shell. It is better not to waste time and immediately use insecticides - Fufanon, Phosbecid, Aktellik,
- mining mole. The larvae eat away leaf tissue from the inside, without going outside. From the outside, it looks like tunnels dug through. For prophylaxis at the end of spring, the soil in the peristal circle is shed with Aktar or Aktellik. Traps are hung near the trees, sticky belts are put on the trunks. To combat the tracks use drugs BI-58, Karate, Konfidor-Maxi.
- cherry weevil Adults eat leaf buds, flower buds and fruit ovaries. Females lay eggs in forming fruits, leaving a black “cork” on the surface. The larvae eat up the bone and go outside, preparing for the winter. During the spring, adults can be fought, once every 2-3 days, simply shaking them onto the oilcloth, fabric, and newspaper spread under the tree. This is best done in the early morning when bugs are the least active. Leafy, flower buds and fruit ovaries are sprayed with Carbofos or Trichlormetaphosis. Folk remedy - camomile tea infusion. To fight the larvae use Aktar, Admiral, Spark Double effect.
Growing nectarine in your own garden is a rather difficult task. Habitual conditions for culture are very different from the Russian climate. Therefore, competent and regular care is required. Now there are many varieties adapted to conditions that are not quite suitable for nectarine, therefore even a gardener can try to grow an exotic fruit, the site of which is located in central Russia.
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