In early spring in our forests appears bear bow or wild garlic. The leaves of this plant resemble leaves of lily of the valley, and the root is a small onion. It grows usually in secluded corners - among the swamps, in the dense thickets, under the canopy of deciduous trees. In the early spring there is nothing to do neither the mushroom picker, nor the woodcutter, and by the beginning of the haymaking of the ramson already has time to bloom and there is no trace of its thick green thickets. So she saves herself from destruction.
As food garlic seasoning, we received wide advertising through the market when they began to deliver us its pickled petioles from the Caucasus. The natural thickets of wild garlic in our forests is becoming less and less, as the tender plant, once pulled out by the roots, does not soon recover. Currently listed in the Red Book.
The healing properties of wild garlic
A distinctive feature of this plant is its high content of vitamin C. To ensure its daily rate, it is enough to eat 50 g of fresh onions. Ramson is rich in phytoncides. essential compounds, protein. Seeds contain up to 12% fatty oils.
In folk medicine, wild garlic is widely used for beriberi, to increase the secretory and motor activity of the stomach and intestines. stimulation of appetite, treatment of dysentery. constipation, as well as tuberculosis. bronchitis, cough, thyroid disease. Alcoholic infusion of wild garlic is used externally for rheumatism. You can use the gruel from the leaves externally - to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce inflammatory processes. Tea from fresh or dried shoots of wild garlic is used for diseases of the bladder and frequent urination.
Bear onions - a perennial plant with a height of 10-15 cm. The leaves of adult wild garlic appear from the ground rolled into a tube, and then unfold. Their length is 15-20 cm, width is 3-6 cm. The flower arrow is a three-edged height of 15-40 cm. The flowers are small, gathered in a rather dense spherical umbrella. The plant blooms in the 4-5th year of life at the end of May and the beginning of June. Seeds are large, black, ripen in July. In August, the aboveground plant organs die off.
This is a plant with a short growing season. In spring, the ramson begins to grow even before the snow melts, sometimes the tips of the leaves turn yellow from frost, but it continues to grow. Already in the first half of April, green leaves begin to develop.
Two approaches to growing
In recent years, natural wild garlic thickets have been gradually reduced, as a result of which many vegetable growers try to cultivate this plant in the dacha and household plots.
There are two approaches to the cultivation of wild garlic in the dacha plots: in the shaded areas of the garden, under the canopy of fruit trees, between farm buildings and in open, well-prepared beds as an independent vegetable plant.
The first method of growing wild garlic
Of great interest is the first method of growing wild garlic.
Due to its biological characteristics, wild garlic is well accustomed to the most soggy low parts of the garden, where nothing else grows. except for weeds. Until now, amateur vegetable growers are looking for crops that can withstand such conditions and are capable of producing vitamin products in the earliest spring, immediately after the snow melted, and later - raw materials for laying products for long-term storage. To solve this problem, at least partially, will help the ramson. This plant is able to grow with strong shading and close standing of groundwater, that is, where areas of garden cooperatives are usually located, especially in the suburban areas of large cities. With this method of growing care almost does not require, it would be enough moisture in the spring.
Growing ramsons - the second way
When growing wild garlic as a garden plant, fertile, well-seasoned soils with a soil solution close to neutral are required. They should be well aerated, loose, since the bulbs are at a depth of 7-15 cm. You can grow this crop both in the open and with weak shading of the plot with fruit trees.
It is better to plant in places where the soil warms faster in spring. During the period of active growth and development, plants also need a favorable water-air soil regime. Even in the period of summer dormancy, this plant does not tolerate drying out of the soil. In general, the technology of cultivation of wild garlic is the same as in perennial cultivated onions.
Sowing wild garlic (seed planting)
Ramson becomes capable of seed and vegetative reproduction only in the fourth year of life. Like many wild-growing onions, wild garlic seeds germinate only when sown before winter or after stratification (freezing for 80-100 days at a temperature of 0-3 degrees).
In the first year of plant life, it is better to leave them in boxes, and transplant them to a permanent place in the second year of life. Depth of seeding is 0.5-1 cm. Shoots will appear in April next year. With this method of cultivation, cutting the leaves can be carried out only 5 years after sowing.
Sown in spring, seeds stored in indoor conditions, germinate only after a year. Therefore, it is better to sow the seeds after they are harvested or before winter in boxes.
Bulbs of wild garlic breeding
The first experiments showed that it is better to propagate the ramson bulbs. They are planted in August-October or the next year - in April-May. The main disadvantage of the vegetative method is the low multiplication factor: each shoot produces only one replacement bulb each year. With this method, the leaves are harvested in the third year of plant life.
Ramson - care
Grown ramson in one place for up to seven years. The care consists in timely watering, weeding, fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers and loosening the row spacing. After the end of the growing season, the plot is mulched annually with peat. Then the bushes are divided and transferred to a new place.
Harvesting wild garlic
The first harvest begins after the snow melts, the last to collect flower arrows, until the seeds reach a milky wax ripeness, and the arrows are tastier than the leaves and marinate well. In the third year after planting, at a density of 25-30 plants per 1 square. m the mass of leaves reaches 1.5 kg.
In order for the ramson not to leave your site, it is cut in the middle - early May. leaving the bulbs in the ground. Cutting at the same place can be carried out no more than once every 2-3 years. The continuous collection of wild garlic leaves is the main cause of the loss of landings in inexperienced gardeners. Bulbs for harvesting in the future dig up shortly before the death of the aerial parts of plants.
With a strong growth of wild garlic can be used in winter, for which the bulbs in late October, transplanted into flower pots and put on the windowsill, and in January, a bright emerald green.
Ramson on the table
Eat young shoots and leaves as food: fresh, pickled, fermented, and also as a seasoning for meat dishes. For harvesting, the best specimens are taken for future use, rinsed in cold water, crushed and, well salted, poured into a wooden barrel, compacted, put oppression, as when sauerkraut. The barrel is placed in the cellar and after a while the ramson can be served to the table as a side dish for various dishes. It should be noted that in fermented form, vitamin C is well preserved in the leaves. Young leaves and bulbs go on salads. Chopped onion can be mixed with red pepper and sour cream and cook delicious seasoning for fish and meat.
Ramson perfectly can grow in the garden!
And these are not empty words, everything is tested on their own experience, and over the course of several years.
Back in 2006, for the sake of interest, I bought two bunches of wild garlic with roots on a small market and planted in my garden on a common garden bed. The plants took root well and grew there normally for three years: in due time they bloomed and gave seeds. When they grew, I decided to transplant them to another place. But even there the ramson is well settled - seed sprouts become even more.
In 2013, I had to buy another garden plot, closer to the house, so the "evacuation" of my favorite plants was carried out. I took with me several bush of wild garlic, planting them between the black currant, where it grew well and every year generously pleases me with its greenery with a spicy taste.
So from this alone it is clear that transplanting wild garlic is well tolerated (I also distributed seedlings to many neighbors, and it was well received at all, no one has yet complained). And what else does she like? And she likes penumbra, and also so that the soil does not dry out (then she has greener and juicier). In the summer, I occasionally water it with a solution of fermented nettle — it is very responsive to this top dressing.
Some gardeners complain that they cannot grow wild garlic from seeds. I myself somehow tried to do this for two years in a row, but I did not see the shoots. I couldn’t understand what was the matter, until I read in the special literature that if one doesn’t do seed stratification during the winter, then one can not even dream of spring shoots. That's the whole clue.
Now I do this: I collected the seeds, scattered them over the surface of the garden (not burying) and forgot until spring. And in the spring shoots themselves appear - a solid green brush pleases the eye! So here nature itself conducts stratification, and there’s nothing to bother me about. Especially since the ramson hibernates without any shelter, withstanding great frosts. And in the spring the snow will barely come off, the plants are already hatching, and their leaves begin to grow quickly.
So, in my garden collection (see photo), one more very healthy and unpretentious caring perennial culture was added that feels great in my garden.
Description of the plant and its species
Ramsondissolved in early spring. Above the ground, its green leaves appear, very similar to the leaves of the lily of the valley. A small onion hides in the ground, which, by the way, can also be eaten.
Ramson is considered to be a wild plant, but in recent years, gardeners have been happy to plant it at summer cottages. If you are thinking about how to breed wild garlic at the dacha, first choose one of the suitable varieties for this purpose.
Bear bowThinking about where the wild garlic grows, Scandinavian highland forests, the Caucasus Mountains and the Mediterranean countries with the high Alps come to mind. And it is true. Such areas are ideal for the growth of bear onions - the most common type of wild garlic.
The bulbs of a bear's onion are slightly oblong, the stalks are triangular, can stretch out to 40 cm in length. The leaves are lanceolate, diverge to the side of the root and in the early spring they let out a small white inflorescence. After the ramsh ottsvetet, round boxes with seeds are formed on it.
Victory BowThis species of wild garlic came to us from the Far East and Siberian forests. It is often called Siberian wild garlic. The victorious bow differs in rather large bulbs, which diameter reaches up to 1.5 cm.
The shape is cylindrical-conical. On one rhizome 2-3 bulbs can be attached at once, from which a very tall stem goes up (in the wild, it stretches up to 80 cm). To the middle of the stem leaves are attached.
The onion blooms in early spring, flowers of small sizes are collected in spherical inflorescences. For the climatic conditions of Ukraine and Russia, this type of ramsons is the most acceptable.
Choosing a place for a flowerUnder natural conditions, wild garlic grows in densely shaded forests. At the summer cottage it is important for her to find a similar place. Ramson can be planted in the shade of the house, barn or even under the fence. Excellent it will grow in the shade of large garden trees.
On the beds, wild garlic is planted less frequently, except that not far from large plants that the flowers cover with their leaves. In addition to coolness, wild garlic also requires a lot of moisture.
Planting in the fallPlanting wild garlic under the winter can be carried out in August or September. Later you should not do this: before the onset of frost, the bulbs should have time to settle down in a new place.
Before planting a family of bulbs should be carefully divided so as not to harm their roots. Bulbs are planted in rows at a distance of 40 cm. In each row, the bulbs are at a distance of 20 cm from each other.
When planting for the winter it is also important to take care of a sufficient amount of nutrients and good shelter. It is advisable to mulch such a planting humus.
Spring garlic is planted in April or in the first weeks of May. It is important that ramson bulbs are well preserved by this time. Before landing, be sure to check their condition. A bulb with dry roots is unlikely to grow.
The scheme of spring planting is the same as the autumn one. The main thing is to make sure that the bed for wild garlic is dug up and fertilized since autumn. Then in the spring it will only water it and do not even need to mulch.
Irrigation and care rulesThroughout the growing season, the ramson requires attention.
A plant accustomed to wild forest conditions in the country can suffer from drought and nutrient deficiencies.
Plant Transplant RulesRamson needs regular transplantation. Every year, another 2-3 youngsters appear on one bulb, which need to be torn off and transplanted to another place or eaten.
But if you do not aspire to the rapid reproduction of wild garlic, you can leave it together with the newly formed bulbs up to 5 years. Please note that if we are talking about bear bow, then it can produce yields over the past 7 years in the same place.
A clue to the fact that it is time to transplant the plant will be shredded bulbs, as well as excessively thin stems on which the leaves practically do not develop.
Bulbs of wild garlic breeding is the easiest and fastest way. It is necessary to separate young bulbs with roots from one bush and transplant them to a prepared place.This method is more complicated. Particular attention should be paid to the purchase or collection of seeds, they must be fresh. Boxes with seeds need to be removed from the plant at the moment when they begin to turn yellow. During this period, they are particularly germinating.
Sow the seeds in the ground in September, after preparing for this a small hotbed of size 0.5 x 0.5 m. It is enough to scatter the seeds on wet soil, press them a little so that they enter the soil.
Mulch with humus, peat or leaves. This bed requires regular watering. In the spring of a third of the seeds must necessarily sprout.
Seeds of wild garlic will not produce a crop for another two years. Then they can already be seated in a permanent place. Up to this point they will need to be regularly watered and weed.
Gathering wild garlicWhen growing wild garlic, the main goal of summer residents is its fragrant leaves, which are used not only in cooking, but also in medicine.
This plant has pronounced anti-inflammatory properties, saturates the body with ascorbic acid, protein and essential oils.
It is possible to start gathering wild garlic leaves in early spring, when they had just crawled out of the ground and gained strength.
As for the bulbs, they need to be dug out in the fall, because only by this time they are gaining strength and reach the maximum size. Storage of wild garlic is possible in the form of pickling or salting leaves and bulbs.
We hope that now you will have no questions regarding ramson, what kind of plant it is and how to plant it at your summer cottage.
It is worth raising wild garlic. It is not difficult to do this, and salads made from it will delight you in spring and summer.
In the wild, wild garlic grows in forests and meadows under deciduous trees. This symbiosis is very important: the plants receive the sunlight necessary for development, until the leaves bloom on the trees. In the summer, the aerial portion fades, and the entire colony of bulbs hibernates. By that time, the forest is covered with thick foliage, and the light does not disturb the calm state of the rhizomes. Therefore, there is no wild onion in the coniferous forests. Pines and Christmas trees do not create a comfortable environment for him.
Ramson adapted to any conditions, it does not need to look for a special place on the site. Select a corner where crops cannot grow that are demanding of lighting, the composition and moisture of the soil. The shade is even better: without bright light, the fox will be large and juicy, and the care of the plantation will be much easier.
Convenient places for gardening:
- under fruit trees,
- along the fence
- between the rows of bushes.
Although the plant is not very demanding on the soil, it needs to create comfortable conditions for obtaining rich crops. Dig the ground on a full bayonet of a shovel, fertilize the barren land, and a bed for several years will delight you with delicate spring greens.
When digging for each m 2 it is desirable to make:
- organic - 1 bucket
- phosphate fertilizers - 30 g,
- potash fertilizers - 20 g,
- ammonium nitrate - 15g.
Features planting seeds and bulbs
There are 2 ways to breed wild garlic: sowing seeds and planting bulbs, and each method has its own characteristics. Planting grains requires warm weather. The best germination is observed at a temperature of about + 20⁰. It is advisable to engage in this work in the spring or late summer. The fresher the seeds, the greater their number will be viable. Buy them before planting and be sure to look at the date of packaging. It is desirable to collect grains from existing plants immediately before planting.
To obtain seeds, cut the boxes when they begin to turn yellow. If the shell has become solid, it means that the plant has passed into a state of rest, and the activity of the embryos has decreased.
If landing takes place in September, make furrows 1 cm deep 20 cm apart. Seeds can not be sown often, the distance between plants should be at least 10 cm. Sprinkle with soil and a thin layer of black soil. It is not necessary to mulch yet, since the layer of mulch should be no thinner than 5 cm. The seedlings will not be able to penetrate such thickness, they will not have enough light for development. You can cover a bed for the winter with foliage, but be sure to clean the ground in spring. During the cold season, some grains will lose germination and will not sprout, these places can be sown in spring. When planting is planned for May, it is necessary to stratify the seeds even in winter. 3 months keep the grain at 0⁰. When warm days come, plant them just like in the fall.
Planting bulbs is much easier, but only one plant will appear from each root, and not all of them will take root. This method is convenient if you decide to destroy the plantation in the country and arrange a bed in another place. Doing this work should be in the second half of summer, when the plants are already hibernating. Make nests 30 cm apart, plant 2 roots in each well. Do not dig in the bulbs; a dry coat of feathers should be visible from the ground. In spring, pull out weak bushes so that only one specimen remains in each well.
Wild onion care
The main care of wild garlic consists in dry watering and weed control. In early spring, apply nitrogen fertilizer for active growth of greenery. During the flowering period, you need to feed the plantings with a full complex fertilizer for the development of the bulbs. When the leaves start to wither, care for the bed can be considered complete, the plants do not need any irrigation or nutrients.
In the summer, carefully inspect the garden bed. Every year the bulbs rise slightly to the ground surface. Tumble with a thick layer of leaves all over the ground, so the plants will feel in their native environment. If the winters in your region are frosty and snowless, cover the garden bed with straw before frost. Spring shelter must be removed.
The first 2 years do not tear the young leaves, let the plant develop and gain strength. If at this time the bow releases a flower arrow, break it off so that the plant has more energy to develop the bulbs. If you grow wild garlic from the seeds when the plants mature, remove the weak specimens so that the strong bushes are spacious.
Wild onions at home
Growing wild garlic is possible at home on the windowsill. Note that although the height of the bulbs is very small, the roots of the plant go deeper into the soil up to 20 cm. Take a container in which the root system will be spacious. You can buy soil for seedlings, and you can pick up the land in the deciduous forest and add peat to it in half the volume of the brought soil. Do not dig the ground under conifers: wild garlic grows only under deciduous trees.
Planting seeds takes place in the same way as in open ground. After sowing, moisten the ground and cover the container with a film. In a warm place shoots will appear in about a month. When sprouts look out of the ground, put the container in partial shade. When planting bulbs they are buried in the ground by 3-5 cm and well watered.
Caring for home garden beds is almost the same as outdoor cultivation. Water the soil so that it is always wet, loose the crust that appears. In the summer of containers, it is desirable to take out the fresh air. It is believed that when grown at home, the greens turn out to be even more juicy and tasty than the harvest from the garden.
Ramson is one of the first plants supplying animals and humans with fresh vitamins after a long winter. Due to the massive gathering in many areas, it is under threat of destruction. In addition, the season of its occurrence passes simultaneously with the period of activity of ticks. Do not put yourself in danger, leave the forest greens to bears that are hungry for the winter, but you can grow wild onions in your summer cottage or on the windowsill for yourself.
If you can purchase a sufficient number of bulbs, plant on a bed of rhizome, this method is much easier. When spring sowing seeds, it is necessary to carry out stratification. When the plants take root, your main concerns will end. Now we have to water occasionally and feed the plantings 2 times per season. And the most pleasant work to be in the spring - the collection of juicy tasty leaves.
Sowing without stratification
If at the dacha a small plantation of wild garlic has already been formed, it is possible to renew the planting with freshly harvested seeds without artificial stratification. It means planting ramson in the winter in open ground.
The seeds of the plant are harvested in August and kept stored in a cool place until October. From autumn they prepare a plot for sowing, remove weeds, loosen, bring in humus. In mid-October, when the air temperature is rapidly falling, the seeds are scattered over the surface of the prepared area, slightly buried in the soil with a rake, and sprinkled on top with dry foliage collected on the site.
After natural stratification, young shoots appear in spring. As a rule, shoots are not always friendly due to unstable weather conditions. Home stratification gives the best result, therefore, for laying the first bed or plantation, wild garlic is grown from seed in a seedling manner.