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Poisonous mushrooms of Russia with names and descriptions

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Going to the forest for mushrooms? You will certainly learn to recognize poisonous mushrooms in the inhabitants of forest glades, decorated with assorted hats. This most important skill, which distinguishes an experienced mushroom picker from an amateur, has saved the lives of millions of collectors. After all, some mushrooms are thinly disguised as edible, being deadly. Even the most careful culinary processing does not relieve them of poisons.

Mycotoxins - Mushroom Poisons

Not all non-edible mushrooms can be poisoned, they are not eaten for various reasons. Bitter, smelly, tasteless - and such instances are found in our forests. But some categories to eat are strictly prohibited. What mushrooms are considered poisonous? Fruit bodies of these dangerous forest dwellers contain a variety of toxins:

  • hemolysin, hiromitrin - destroy the red blood cells,
  • amanitin, phalloidinorellanin - cause deep damage to the liver and kidneys,
  • muscarin, muscaridin - lead to severe gastrointestinal poisoning,
  • bufotenin, psilocin, psilocybin - cause nervous system disorders, dangerous psychosis with hallucinations.

Different types of poisonous mushrooms contain these substances alone or in various combinations. Mushroom pickers who, by negligence or unknowingness, who have gathered them and who are unaware of the danger, are at risk of serious health disorders, even death. Carefully study the poisonous mushrooms photo and description, none of them should be in your basket. The degree of their danger depends on the number and type of toxins, the place of growth, the duration of storage, the weight of the fruit body that has entered the stomach.

Food Poisoning Mushrooms

Disorders caused by the consumption of the Satanin fungus, False-fox sulfur-yellow, Ryadovka tiger, Entoloma poisonous, mostly not fatal, their most serious consequences - severe vomiting and diarrhea, convulsions and loss of consciousness. This applies only to adults with a strong immune system. In children and the elderly, such an unsafe meal will cause serious complications.

The satanic mushroom often ends up in a basket of inexperienced mushroom pickers instead of Bely. They are similar, like cousins, even the hat of the toxic twin is not lamellar, like all poisonous, but spongy. In order not to fall for deception, read the mushroom encyclopedia. It contains all the poisonous mushrooms photos and descriptions that mimic the appearance of edible - Satanic, Pale toadstool, Meadowfruit Mushroom, Creamer sulfur-yellow, false varieties Masilat, Chanterelles, Umbrellas.

Hallucinogens and alkaloids

It may seem prudent and thorough to people that it is impossible to accidentally poison Amanita. Its poisonousness has long been the talk of the town, and you can’t confuse a bright red hat with anything. Why every year there are cases of mushroom poisoning? there is two types of mushroom pickers deliberately at risk collect them.

1.Seasoned mushroom pickerswho have information about the edibility of some species. In our forests, occasionally there is a gray-pink Amanita. It is conditionally edible mushroom, after digestion in several waters it is really suitable for food. In the case of Amanita, to determine which mushrooms will not cause harm to health, only a very experienced mushroom picker can. To eliminate the error, it is advisable to focus on their photo and name.

2.Thrill-seekerswho are not too lazy in search of new pleasures to go into the dense forest for hallucinogenic mushrooms. Red and Panther fly-agarics do include alkaloid substances, but their content is negligible compared to toxins. Therefore, the pursuit of pleasures often ends in a hospital bed.

It is unlikely for an ordinary mushroom picker to collect any kind of hallucinogenic substance - Psilotsebe, Konotsib, Paneolus. Too little they look like edible. These mushrooms are poisonous, they cause irreparable harm to human health.

Warning - life threatening

The list of poisonous fungi, representing a mortal danger, is not very large. His study should be given special attention. Amanita, Pale toadstool, Fibers, Lepiota brown-red, Galerina fringed, Mountain cobweb, Whitish whitish - only a small amount of any of these deadly poisonous mushrooms is fatal. In the case of the Pale Toothbrush, even a third of the cap is enough. It is so poisonous that you can get a moderate poisoning by holding it in your hands. Toxins enter the stomach through the mucous surfaces of the eyes, nose, or mouth.

The caps of deadly poisonous fly-agaric, contrary to the usual notion of them, are not necessarily red with a white speck. Such a hat is a distinctive feature of the Amanita red. Other poisonous varieties of amanitas - Panther, Smelly, Potankid, Sulfur Yellow, Vittadini do not have such a characteristic appearance. The section of the encyclopedia, including poisonous mushrooms photo and description, will help to understand their types, appearance and habitat.

Simple safety guidelines

The egg-shaped thickening at the base of the stem, the lamellar structure of the cap in false twins are clear signs of poisonous fungi. To confidently recognize every forest inhabitant who grew up in a meadow or under a tree, study the mushroom encyclopedia. Do you want to prepare a tasty dish from the collected forest gifts and stay alive? Then follow the three rules of mushroom safety:

  1. Never put unfamiliar mushrooms in the basket. Even the slightest doubt is a reason to throw the find away without regret.
  2. Do not try any kind of raw, no matter how appetizing their appearance and smell.
  3. Old and wormy mushrooms of all categories are taboo, even edible long-livers accumulate harmful substances from the atmosphere.

Successful and safe mushroom hunting, smoothly flowing into a pleasant meal!

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Death cap

Symptoms of poisoning appear after 8–12 or even 20–40 hours after eating mushrooms

It is one of the most poisonous fungi that infects vital organs. It grows both individually and in groups in mixed and deciduous forests. Even a small piece of this product can be fatal. Heat treatment cannot neutralize poison. A dangerous death crab is dangerous in that it can be confused with russules, floats, and champignons.

It should not be touched by hands, as well as to prevent contact with other mushrooms.

Amanita red found in deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests

The fungus has white flesh that has an unpleasant smell and taste.

Amanita ranks second in toxicity, for which he received the title of "angel of death." Thanks to the red cap you can’t confuse him with any other mushroom. However, there is a special variety of this representative of the flora - the white mushroom. He looks like a champignon and a float. The foot of the white mushroom is surrounded by a Volvo. They are distinguished by a dangerous product and characteristic flakes on the cap.

Valui false

Another name for the species is hebeloma sticky.

In the people it is called horseradish mushroom. It grows throughout Russia at the end of the summer and in the fall. False valuy is easily confused with the usual. It looks like russula. Visually false valui is almost impossible to distinguish from harmless fungi. It has an unpleasant smell and bitter taste.

Mushroom grows in groups on moist soil.

Once this inconspicuous mushroom with a short leg was considered edible. However, it turned out that the lectins contained in it, which do not disappear after heat treatment, cause a strong allergic reaction and an attack of suffocation.

Especially dangerous swine for people suffering from renal failure.

Dummybird

The flesh of the false moons has a light yellow color, an unpleasant smell and a bitter taste.

Falcons are found in the forest from June to October and grow in groups, most often on rotting wood. There are several subspecies of them. The most dangerous is sulfur-yellow molester. Its use causes diarrhea, dizziness, blurred vision, and in severe cases - loss of consciousness. A large amount of such a product can be fatal. Falcons are so toxic that harmless fungi in the immediate vicinity can poison.

Stinging cereals

Russula grows on peatlands, in marshland, mainly one by one

Burning russula is easily recognizable by the shiny red hat, covered with a sticky substance. Its pulp has a pronounced fruity odor. The Russula is called nauseous for a reason. It has a bitter taste, and after eating it, signs of poisoning appear: vomiting and abdominal pain.

Fox false

This mushroom is also called orange govorushka

It grows in groups, as a rule, near real chanterelles. The hat is orange or copper. It is distinguished from the usual unpleasant taste and smell. False chanterelles can be found in forest and steppe areas from July to October. They are categorized as poorly poisonous mushrooms. Symptoms of poisoning with this product can be easily removed by regular gastric lavage.

Pepper Mushroom

Mushroom can be found from July to late autumn

The species grows throughout Russia, mainly in coniferous forests. Mushroom poison does not act immediately, so not everyone knows that it is forbidden to eat it. Toxins gradually accumulate in the body and adversely affect the liver, which causes cirrhosis. Outwardly, they can be confused with boilers, but they have a sharp taste.

Patuiar Fibers

Fresh fungus in the amount of 10–80 g leads to death

Patatiar's fiber contains 20 times more toxins than the fly agaric. Habitat - deciduous forests. In appearance it is easily confused with edible. However, if you break the cap, there is a chemical smell, like alcohol. The flesh of a young fibrous white is white, but over time it becomes reddish. It tastes very bitter and instantly causes a gag reflex. Spores contain poison - muscarin. Therefore, even inhaling its fragrance is dangerous.

Gall mushroom

The fungus is found in coniferous forests, especially on sandy soil.

Young gall fungus is easily confused with boletus and brownberry. Because of the bitter taste, which does not disappear after heat treatment, but intensifies, it is popularly called gorchak. This species is distinguished from ordinary ones by the coloring of the spongy part under the head. In a bitter tree, it is pinkish. It contains toxins that are detrimental to the liver when it enters the body.

Papillary breast

Papillary moth grows in groups from August to September

Papillary gland can cause serious poisoning. It is distinguished by the nature of the plates. In a harmless analogue, they are tough, dense and look unnatural. The pulp of the false milder has most often some shade - pinkish, yellowish, gray.

How to distinguish edible from dangerous - the main signs

The main thing is not to confuse

In order not to become a victim of poisoning, it is important to be able to distinguish poisonous species from harmless ones. It is sometimes difficult to make even the most experienced collectors, as toxic mushrooms are often visually similar to ordinary ones. However, when the fault of dangerous representatives darkens the flesh. Another distinctive feature of the "twins" - an ovoid thickening at the base. But these signs are not always. The main rule of collectors, which is guaranteed to prevent poisoning, is to collect well-known mushrooms. Even with the slightest doubt it is better to abandon mining.

Some try to identify toxicity in the wrong way. It is believed that the dangerous "twins" differ from their counterparts unpleasant smell and taste. However, it is not. Even the pale grebe does not have a specific aroma. She smells like a completely harmless champignon.

There is an erroneous assumption that insects avoid poisonous species. But beetles and caterpillars do not refuse from toxic products.

It is impossible to distinguish between "twins" from harmless with a bulb or a silver spoon, which, according to the assurances of some collectors, darken when in contact with toxic species. This opinion is not justified.

Effects of poisoning

The main thing in case of mushroom poisoning is to provide prompt assistance.

Mushrooms are quite hard to digest. Sometimes its use in large quantities leads to unpleasant sensations in the stomach and nausea. However, the usual malaise is important to be able to distinguish from the poisoning and take measures to avoid irreversible consequences.

Faint species do not contain a critical amount of toxins. After consuming them, there is a slight weakness, nausea and upset stomach, which disappear after washing. Severe poisoning entails life-threatening consequences.

Once in the body, toxins affect the nervous system and cause paralysis of the internal organs. In this case, the patient is vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, dizziness. Sometimes these symptoms appear as early as 10–15 minutes after eating a poisonous fungus. But bright signs may appear after a few hours.

In 90% of cases, poisoning with particularly poisonous fungi leads to death. It is important to help the patient in the first hours or even minutes after eating a dangerous product. Otherwise death occurs due to acute liver necrosis and damage to vital organs.

Even the most experienced mushroom lovers should be careful. A huge number of dangerous “doubles” grows on the territory of Russia. It is allowed to eat only mushrooms tested more than once, in which the collector is 100% sure.

Omphalot olive

Omphalot maple is a poisonous mushroom that grows in a wooded area on rotten stumps, rotten trunks of deciduous trees in Europe, mainly in the Crimea. Remarkable for its bioluminescence properties. The appearance resembles a chanterelle, but unlike it, the olive oil omphalot has an unpleasant odor and contains illudin S toxin, which, if it enters the human body, leads to very strong pain, bouts of vomiting and diarrhea.

Amanita Panther

Amanita panther grows in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere. The fungus is highly poisonous and contains poisons such as muscarin and mycoatropin acting on the central nervous system, as well as a number of toxic alkaloids that cause gastrointestinal upset, hallucinations and can lead to death.

Foliotina wrinkled

On the seventh line in the list of the most dangerous and poisonous mushrooms in the world is Foliotina wrinkled - a poisonous mushroom that grows in Europe, Asia and North America. Contains a strong poison amatoxins, which is very toxic to the liver and is the cause of many deaths. Sometimes these mushrooms are confused with Psilocybe blue.

Greenfinch grows in small groups in dry coniferous forests on sandy soils in North America and Europe. Until recently, it was considered a good edible mushroom, but after the publication in 2001 of a report on poisoning when using a large number of greens (12 cases, 3 of them were fatal), it is suspected of being poisonous. Symptoms of poisoning are manifested in muscle weakness, pain, cramps, nausea and sweating.

Thin pig

Thin pig is a poisonous fungus that is common in moist deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests, gardens, forest belts of the Northern Hemisphere in areas with a temperate climate. The mushroom has long been considered conditionally edible, but now its toxicity has been proven. Prolonged use of a thin svinushka in food leads to severe poisoning, especially in people with diseased kidneys. Potentially fatal complications include acute renal failure, shock, respiratory failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Ergot purple

Purple ergot is a type of parasitic fungus that is found on some herbs and cereals, most often on rye. The mushroom has a purple color, it is placed in the ears instead of grains, and in its shape resembles a tooth. Alkaloids containing ergot, have a psychotropic, neurotoxic effect on the central nervous system. In large doses, it is toxic to humans and, if ingested, causes convulsions, prolonged spasms, mental disorders, and often death.
It is known that in the Middle Ages there were epidemics among people and animals, due to the consumption of rye bread, which was made from infected grain. The epidemic is known as “the fire of St. Anthony” or “sacred fire”.

Amanita ocreata

Amanita ocreata, also known as the "angel of death" - a deadly poisonous mushroom from the family Amanita. It is distributed in mixed forests mainly in the northeastern part of North America from Washington to Baja California. Contains alpha-amanitin and other amatoxins, which cause the death of liver cells and other organs, as well as a violation of protein synthesis. Complications of poisoning include increased intracranial pressure, intracranial hemorrhage, sepsis, pancreatitis, acute renal failure, and cardiac arrest. Death usually occurs on days 6–16 after poisoning.

Mushroom species

В большинстве классификаций грибы подразделяют не на две, а на три большие группы:

  • съедобные: их не только собирают, но и специально выращивают для приготовления разных блюд
  • несъедобные (ядовитые): внешне могут выглядеть двойниками съедобных, однако после употребления в пищу вызывают сильнейшие отравления, приводящие часто к смертельным исходам

conditionally edible: some of them are edible only at a young age, the second cause poisoning only when mixed with alcohol or certain foods, and still others require lengthy cooking to remove the tart taste, for example, In Poland, white milk is considered inedible, whereas in Russia it is soaked and then salted, resulting in a peculiar dish with a pleasant aftertaste.

According to the composition of the lower layers of the cap of mushrooms can be:

  • tubular: the layer consists of numerous tightly fitting tubes running perpendicular to the cap
  • lamellar: parallel thin plates as well as tubes are perpendicular to the cap.

Tubular and agaric mushrooms

There is also a classification of fungi according to the methods of reproduction, the type of cells and some other principles, but within the framework of this article they will not be considered.

Structure. Main features

All types of mushrooms, with the exception of morels, stitches and truffles, consist of a cap and a leg, forming the fruit body. The part located underground has the appearance of the finest threads, called a mycelium. Mushrooms are one of the most amazing representatives of the kingdom of nature, combining the features of not only plants, but the simplest animals.

Hat Mushroom Structure

Therefore, scientists have identified them in a separate section of botany. Like plants, they have a checkered structure of the shell, feed by sucking in nutrients from the soil, and multiply by spores. A similar sign is their low mobility.

Fungi can be attributed to animals because of the presence of multicellular forms and chitin, which is characteristic only for skeletons of arthropods. In addition, mushrooms contain glycogen, which is found only in vertebrates in the muscles and liver.

White mushrooms

The color of the cap of such a mushroom is not white at all - it has a brown color. The name is associated only with the opposition of its “black” pub, the cut of which quickly darkens. The pulp of the white fungus remains the same even after prolonged heat treatment. The fruiting time of the main species is June-October.

In each locality, it has a special name, for example, boletus, pan-mushroom, ladybug or mullein. In some areas, white mushrooms are called other species with a light-colored leg and space under the cap: in the Ural region and the Far East, this name is used for aspen mushrooms and bushes. In Central Asia, white is called oyster mushroom, and in the Crimea, it is called a giant govorushka growing in the mountains.

White mushrooms are found everywhere except in Antarctica and arid areas. The main habitats are coniferous, deciduous or mixed forests. The ripening time varies by region. The first mushrooms appear in May or June. Harvesting is over in the southern part of Russia and Europe in October-November, and in the northern regions at the end of August.

  • A real white mushroom has a rather large, convex velvety cap, 7-30 cm in diameter, in some cases reaching even 50 cm.
  • Her skin has a reddish brown color.
  • In young specimens, it can be almost milky-white — it gets dark and “flattened out”, becoming almost flat, it only grows.
  • Less often there are caps of a yellow, yellowish-orange or reddish shade.
  • The massive leg of such a fungus at the base is speckled with small veins and has a peculiar barrel shape (there are specimens in the shape of a mace).
  • Its height is 8-25 cm and thickness is about 7 cm.
  • With age, the leg begins to stretch and take a cylindrical shape with a thickened base.
  • In some instances, it is expanded or narrowed in the center.

The flesh is quite fleshy, light shade, dense. With age, it turns into a fibrous and begins to turn yellow. Hence the name of the white fungus, used in the Perm and Novgorod regions - yellow. Spores olive color.

The tubular layer of the cap with a notch almost at the foot itself is separated from the pulp easily enough. Light or pale pink in young fungi, over time it turns yellow, and then becomes greenish-olive. The smell of raw is very weak - they acquire a pleasant peculiar aroma and savory taste only when cooked or dried.

  • Kinds

Depending on the type of forest, white mushrooms are divided into several forms:

  • spruce white (typical form) with a red-brown hat: the most common type
  • birch: has almost white hats
  • oak: a fairly common form, it can only be found under the oaks, it has a looser flesh and brownish-gray cap
  • pine (pine wood): equipped with a dark cap, which may have a slight purple glow, flesh with a reddish-brown tint.

Spruce white mushroom

Separately distinguish the early form, which is found only in the pine forests of the Middle Volga region - it is collected in May-June. Unlike the pine form, the cut has not brownish, but slightly red flesh. White fungus is subdivided in shades (it can be different in each locality). In Europe and the Caucasus, as well as the forests of North America, there is a net form that looks like a flyworm.

Boletus

There are about 40 varieties of boletus (grasshoppers, berezovikov), which are quite similar in appearance. They grow in small groups, called colony-rings, rarely alone. Therefore, having found the very first mushroom, you will not leave the forest with empty hands.

The boletus erupts from the ground literally before our eyes: per day they are able to rise by 3-4 cm. Maturation - only 6 days. After this period, the mushrooms begin to age rapidly as well.

  • Young mushrooms have light caps with a diameter of up to 18 cm - they begin to darken and turn into dark brown with age. Over time, the cap in the form of a hemisphere turns into a characteristic pincushion. In wet forests, it can be sticky, covered with mucus.
  • Leg of boletus with a diameter of 3 cm and a height of 15 cm in light gray or whitish color in the shape of a cylinder. Another characteristic feature of the fungus is dark gray scales, located longitudinally on the leg.
  • The pulp of boletus is fairly dense white, only slightly darkening when cut. Over time, it becomes more loose, fibrous and tough. The color of the dispute is brownish-olive.

  • Kinds

According to the growing places, shape and color, the boletus is divided into 10 main species (only 9 are found in Russia):

  • ordinary: has the most valuable taste properties, the cap of such mushrooms is reddish-brown, the stem is thickened and has a rather dense structure
  • marsh: it can be found only on wetlands, the distinctive features are a thin leg, a light brown or light gray cap and a looser pulp than that of an ordinary type
  • the black: its cap is almost black, and the leg is thick and short, has high taste properties
  • harsh: has a very rich pleasant, not too sharp smell and sweetish taste, a hat covered with scales, grayish or brown, sometimes with a violet tinge
  • pinking: grows only in the North, the period of growth is autumn, the color of the cap is heterogeneous - from brown to brick, trying to reach for the sun, has a bent leg
  • multicolored: the leg of such boletus is white, but the cap may have a wide variety of shades from gray and orange to brown, often with a small light tan
  • Grabber: It got its name because of its peculiarities - it is found only in hornbeam forests, in Russia mainly in the Caucasus, the color of the cap from ashen or whitish to ocher color
  • tundra: grows under the crowns of dwarf birch, has a small hat of light beige color.

Aspen mushrooms (redheads)

This type of mushroom, indeed, most often can be found just under the aspens. And their bright hat in the shape of a hemisphere (halves of the ball) is very similar in color to fallen and yellowed orange-red aspen leaves. As it grows, its shape flattens.

Even a novice can collect aspen birds - after all, their false counterparts simply do not exist. True, they grow more often alone or in rare groups. You can find them in deciduous or mixed forests, not only at the roots of aspen, but also birch, oaks, pines and even poplars. They are very fond of young trees and often hide in their crowns.

  • The hat of a mature asparagus with a diameter of 15-30 cm is smooth or slightly rough, well fitting leg.
  • The tubular layer is up to 3 cm in size. Over time, it darkens even with a slight touch and becomes friable.
  • Another feature of the aspen is a rather long and thick (up to 22 cm), slightly rough mace-like stem extending downwards.
  • The diameter of the cap of an aspen cap, as a rule, is 5–20, less often 30 cm.
  • The fleshy and dense pulp of an orange-cap boletus on the air is immediately oxidized - on a break it darkens to a blue-green color.

Named so for the mucous skin - indeed, it seems that they were covered with oil on top. These mushrooms grow from September to October in the European part of the continent, as well as Mexico. You can find this mushroom on sandy ground in almost all types of forests, from pine and oak to birch.

It occurs in logging and meadows. According to the protein content, boletus are able to compete even with porcini mushrooms. They can be salted, boiled or fried. When eaten, the slippery skin is removed.

  • The cap of young mushrooms is brown-chocolate or yellow-brown, convex, in the shape of a hemisphere.
  • Over time, it smoothes out and becomes flatter.
  • The leg is much lighter, with a slight yellow tinge and an almost white filmy ring.
  • Its height is 4-12 cm.
  • Maslata have juicy pulp, which is lighter under the cap than at the base.
  • Worms simply adore them - damage can reach up to 80%.

  • Kinds

These mushrooms include not only common boletus, but also a yellow-brown variety of them - even the stem of such bolettes is painted in an intense yellow color. Another view is grainy. Externally similar to the yellow-brown, but has a less intense color. He has no ring on his leg.

The larch nipple has a yellow-brown or lemon-yellow cap without cracks and tubercles and a thick stem of the same color in the form of an elongated cylinder or club.

Agaric mushrooms

Mud, once called the king of mushrooms in Russia, can be found in deciduous or mixed forests, mainly near birch trees. Some species are found only under coniferous trees, on acidic soils. It grows in groups, rarely one by one. Collect milk mushrooms from early July to October.

This mushroom can be considered truly Russian - in Europe it is not recognized and even considered poisonous because of its peculiar bitterness, which, however, passes after soaking. It is not intended for cooking or stewing - it is only salted.

  • The hat of the young real gruppy has a flat-convex shape.
  • As it grows, it changes to funnel-shaped with a characteristic, slightly wrapped inside edge, which is slightly pubescent.
  • The peel is moist, mucous, on which the foliage of a light yellowish or light cream color quickly sticks, sometimes with darker spots. Cap diameter 5-20 cm.
  • The average height of the legs, smoothly flowing into the cap, 3-7 cm.
  • As it ages, it becomes hollow. The flesh of the grudya is quite dense, fragile and fragile.
  • Milky juice in the air begins to darken to a gray-yellow color.
  • Spore powder also has a yellow tint.
  • The smell of fresh mushroom is very sharp, peculiar, vaguely reminiscent of the smell of fruit.

After salting, milk mushrooms become bluish

Milk (hat view from the bottom)

This mushroom has many varieties:

  • real (white): most valuable, refers to edible, has a dense white flesh and a pleasant "grundy" aroma, the color of the cap is light yellow or creamy, with glassy light stripes, the plates are bright, with a yellowish edge, the cap pressed into the center has a wooly fluffy edge, grows from July to September
  • black (nippy): conditionally edible mushroom, grows only in birch forests, the taste is fresher, but it is less dry, gives a rich brine, differs from the present in the color and shape of the cap - it is not funnel-shaped, but flatter, dark olive or brown, slightly depressed and darker to the center, collect it later white almost to the end of October
  • raw: conical shape, cap slightly yellowish or light green in color, with an edge, the worms do not eat it, even its juice, appearing on a break, is bitter
  • bitter (bitter, mountain woman): a brown or reddish bell-shaped hat with a slight pubescence of the edge, the stem has a similar color, it is thin cylindrical, the mushroom requires long soaking, the smell is small
  • red brown: the cap is rather large, up to 18 cm, rounded in young specimens, pressed into the center over time, its edges are slightly wrapped, may grow with a wrinkle grid, the leg is thick, in the shape of a cylinder, the color is similar to the cap, the plates are yellow or light, slightly pink, the taste is sweetish, the smell is similar to herring
  • poplar: growing in poplar or aspen groups, funnel-shaped cap, with curved edges, light, may have pinkish spots, short stem, pale pink plates
  • Spruce: for the yellow color of the cap it is sometimes called yellowish, similar in shape to the raw one, but has a longer leg,
  • aspen: looks like white, but the top hat is dark, wormy does not happen
  • yellow: is rare, in spruce or birch forests, fleshy, with dark areas a shaggy hat, with concave edges, light flesh, yellow when pressed, not inferior to white in taste

The harvest of this mushroom can be collected from June to October, after thunderstorms. It should be searched in coniferous or mixed forests, in a pile of fallen leaves or grass.

  • These mushrooms have a characteristic shape and are difficult to confuse with others.
  • Chanterelle caps are one with the stem - the transition has no clearly defined borders.
  • There is no difference in their color. The diameter of the fungus 5-12 cm.
  • The edges of the cap are wrapped and slightly wavy and have a funnel-shaped or slightly inwardly shaped form.
  • The plates are slightly wavy and fall on the leg.
  • Leg pulp fibrous, light or yellowish, with pressure reddens.
  • Chanterelle has a characteristic smell of dried fruit. Taste is pleasant, with hardly expressed sourness.

  • Kinds

There are several kinds of chanterelles:

  • common (cockerel): color from yellow to orange, almost white on the cut, due to the hinomanoza content is detrimental to worms - they do not start chanterelles in this species
  • Cinnamon Red: different intense pinkish-red color and fleshy fibrous pulp
  • gray: color is grayish to brownish-black, gray at the edges of the cap, valued less than ordinary and has not a pronounced taste and aroma, it is rarely collected - most of the mushroom pickers are just unfamiliar with it
  • tubular: grayish-yellow fungus strewn with velvety scales on top, found only in coniferous forests
  • yellowing: color is yellow-brown, with dark scales, the leg is lighter, the taste and smell are little pronounced
  • velvety: a rare species with a bright orange cap, painted more intensely towards the center, the taste is pleasant, sour
  • faceted: bright yellow mushroom with a characteristic carved, very wavy edge
  • santharellus minor: orange chanterelle, outwardly similar to ordinary, but smaller, has a long, lighter leg and vazopodobnuyu hat
  • Santharellus subalbidus: very bright mushroom, orange only at the break, gets wet brown when wet, taste is poorly pronounced

The only thing common in Ryzhikov and chanterelles is color (although in Ryzhikov it is darker and more intense). This is where their similarities end. Unlike chanterelles, saffron mushrooms have a more even, only slightly concave cap.

The leg, though similar in color, is clearly demarcated and does not merge with it. On a hat circles and spots of dark green color are often visible. Reds flesh is more fleshy and not as brittle as red mushrooms.

There are worms in them too. As they grow, the color of these mushrooms does not change. At the break, they give a characteristic red color, a milky sap capable of painting hands.

Chanterelles simply do not have it. The taste of these mushrooms is very pleasant - the mushrooms are also considered a delicacy.

Champignon

Find these mushrooms, resembling balls, can be in places with wet soil, richly enriched with organic matter. In terms of nutritional value, low-calorie champignons are not inferior even to meat. They are often grown even in greenhouses on a special substrate from fresh manure.

May-October fruiting time.

  • These are rather massive mushrooms with a cap diameter up to 10 cm.
  • In small specimens, it is round, flattened with age.
  • Depending on the place of growth and the species, it may have both an almost white and a brownish tint.
  • The surface of the cap is smooth or covered with small soft scales.
  • On the even thick legs of the champignon, there are always single or double layered rings.
  • The plates darken with time and turn from light to almost black.
  • The flesh is white with a slight tinge of yellow or brown.
  • The aroma is similar to aniseed. Taste is pleasant, pronounced mushroom.

The first quickly turn yellow on the cut and have the characteristic smell of carbolic. The foot of the toadstool is thinner and less dense. They are differently painted.

The color of the cap of the poisonous mushroom is equally luminous at the top and bottom, while at the bottom of the mushroom it is lighter.

Champignons can vary in color and surface smoothness. Их существует более 200 видов – одни из них съедобны или условно-съедобны, а другие могут быть даже ядовитыми.

В пищу используют следующие виды:

  • обыкновенный (луговой): часто встречается вблизи человеческого жилища, в садах и огородах, гриб высотой до 10 см со светлой или светло-бурой шляпкой, шаровидная ее форма с характерными загнутыми краями с возрастом уплощается, ножка по цвету почти не отличается от верха,
  • лесной (благушка): occurs in mixed or coniferous forests, in deciduous trees much less often, the brown-brown cap in the form of half an egg opens over time and can reach 7–10 cm in diameter
  • heather: it can be found under a spruce or beech; when pressed, the light hat turns yellow, as it grows, almost white plates begin to turn brown
  • field: characteristic of open spaces, sometimes it grows near fir trees, a bell-shaped cap with slightly curved edges is light or creamy, the aroma is pronounced almond
  • garden (royal): the top of the cream shade, and the fungus, growing in natural conditions, brown or white, the softness of the cut changes shade to pink
  • curve (nodule): light champignon on a long stem that thickens and warps as it grows, inhabitant of coniferous forests
  • August, its distinguishing feature: orange scales on the background of the brown cap, below the ring, they gradually turn yellow
  • Dark red: it occurs infrequently, therefore many mushroom pickers are even unfamiliar with it, it is similar in shape to regular champignon, a distinctive feature is dark red skin, on the break white flesh begins to redden immediately

Cause dangerous intoxication bacteria called butulinus, which when released into the bank can develop rapidly in proteins without oxygen in conditions of a neutral or alkaline environment. Therefore, mushrooms are always rolled up with the addition of acid, which can destroy dangerous spores.

Poisoning

This deadly poisonous mushroom is dangerous not only because it looks like edible. His deceit lies in the fact that the first signs of poisoning (uncontrolled vomiting, bloody diarrhea, severe pain in the peritoneum and muscles, heart failure, hypotension, filamentous pulse) appear only after a day or two after eating toadstool when the liver and kidneys are already badly damaged. Another unpleasant nuance of poisoning is that on the 4th day there may come an unexpected improvement in the condition, which sometimes lasts for several days. After that comes death. Fatal poisoning with pale toadstools is recorded in 99% of cases.

We put these mushrooms in the second position, as some of them are deadly poisonous. Many people imagine him to be a real handsome man with a red hat in white dots. In fact, the fly agaric is not one mushroom, but a whole genus, numbering about three dozen species. Among them there are such groups:

  • Edible and even delicious (imperial amanita and caesarea).
  • Conditionally edible (float or Sicilian fly agaric, ovoid, solitary, gray-pink).
  • Just inedible, though not poisonous (earthen mushroom, yellow-green, bristly, prickly-headed, gray, purple, pineal, thick, and others).
  • Toxic. To poison them with death, they need to eat a lot, but in moderation they are hallucinogenic. This is the well-known red mushroom mushroom with white specks. It is widely used in medicine, as a medicine, for example, against cancer, and in everyday life for the baiting of insects. Hence its name.

But there are in the genus and unusually dangerous species. There are not many of them. The list of poisonous mushrooms included royal toadstools (not to be confused with the imperial), spring (or white), smelly (or smelly toadstool) and panther. Each of them contains poisons muscarine, muscaridine, and in some - additionally hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Poisoning by these fly agarics in 9 cases out of 10 is fatal.

Short description

I would like to warn that only those who are ideally versed in them can collect fly agaric for food, because by many signs the “bad” and “good” species are quite similar. Tell you about the features of poisonous representatives.

  • Spring Amanita. Some call it spring toadstool. You can also say about him that he is the most poisonous mushroom in the world. His hat is white, slightly cream in the center. At first it is convex, then it becomes almost flat. Its diameter can be up to 10 cm. The pulp of the fungus is white, without smell, it tastes unpleasant. The leg in height is pulled out up to 12 cm. It is different in thickness (from 7 to 25 mm), but it always has a white “skirt” and thickening closer to the ground.
  • Amanita smelly. This mushroom is all white. The spherical cap can be up to 11 cm in diameter, the foot reaches a thickness of up to 20 mm. Distinctive feature - the pulp smells of chlorine.
  • Amanita panther. He is also considered to be one of the most poisonous fungi in the world, since death causes death in 90% of cases.

Outwardly, it looks a bit like a red mushroom, only the cap can be gray, brownish, greenish, light brown. Along its edges are often hanging flakes remaining from the bedspread. The flesh is white, does not change its color in the air. Its texture is slightly watery, foul-smelling, it tastes sweetish. The leg is most often downward thicker, slightly fleecy, has a white ring-shaped rim below. Individual specimens on it have a white fragile ring.

  • Royal Amanita. This is a real giant, reaching 20 cm in height. The diameter of the cap may also be about 20 cm. This mushroom is hard not to notice. Its cap may be ocher, brown or greenish, and in shape it is flat, spherical or pressed in the center, with radial stripes. From above it is covered with white “dots” (the remains of the bedspread). The flesh is from light yellow to brown, odorless. The leg is thick, whitish, thickened down, velvety, has several belts. A distinctive feature of the Imperial Amanita is that the cap of the latter is bright orange or ocher, without white dots.

False mushrooms

This is also not a single fungus, but a whole group, which includes edible, conditionally edible, toxic (do not lead to death) and very poisonous. Outwardly, they all look like ordinary wild mushrooms - small in size, grow like a friendly family on stumps and old decks, have relatively long legs and bell-shaped or semi-circular caps. It is possible to distinguish “good” mushrooms from “bad” ones by their color. Consider especially dangerous species:

  • Dummybird gray-yellow. Many mistakenly call these mushrooms toadstools. They grow on long thin legs (up to 10 cm). The diameter of the caps is only 2-4 cm (very rarely up to 7 cm). The color of the cap can be of different shades - grayish, beige, brownish, even greenish, but always with yellowness. Under the cap are the plates. In young mushrooms, they are white and yellow, but soon become a dark, saturated brown color. The flesh is very bitter and smelling unpleasant. It is hard to imagine that someone wants to eat such a mushroom. Nonetheless, cases of poisoning with gray-yellow pods are not so rare. The first symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, pain, dizziness) manifest 5-6 hours after the meal. Death occurs in approximately 60% of cases.
  • Galerina fringed. This is also a kind of false agarics, it is found in Russia in the Caucasus.

Galerina can be safely called one of the most poisonous mushrooms in the world, since when it is poisoned, the lethal outcome is recorded in 90% of cases. To grow this false honey can be a family, and singly. It has a convex cap up to 4 cm in diameter, a long leg (up to 7-10 cm). The color of the cap can be from pale yellow to brown-orange, and it varies, depending on humidity. Almost always outside the cap is oily or sticky with mucus. The flesh is white or light brown, with the smell of flour. It contains the deadly poisons of amitoxins.

  • The mocket is brick red. From the previous type it is distinguished by the color of the cap, which is often saturated brick. But there are instances with orange, yellow and even white hats. In principle, this species is conditionally edible. In all cases of brick-red poisoning, the foamed foam is indicated erroneously instead of gray-yellow.

The svushki got to the list of poisonous mushrooms only in 1944. Before that, they were considered conditionally edible. The fact is that in them there is a special antigen, which is attached to our red blood cells, thereby causing an organism’s autoimmune response. As a result, a person develops hemolytic anemia, renal failure, nephropathy. For this to happen, svushki should be eaten for a long time (until their antigens accumulate in sufficient quantity). Many people, having eaten them once, do not experience any painful symptoms, therefore nobody binds to death with a pig. Fatal outcome most often occurs in children and in people with kidney problems. Externally, the fungus is quite cute and very similar to the good. It has a thick short leg, a fleshy large cap (up to 15 cm in diameter), which may be slightly convex or flat. Its color varies from olive brown to rusty brown. The flesh at the site of damage (pressure) quickly darkens. In it you can often see worms and insects. Using the example of a pig, we can say that the signs of poisonous mushrooms do not always work. If you focus only on the fact that wormy caps or not, you can make a fatal mistake.

Gindellum Peck

Every country has a lot of poisonous mushrooms. Of interest is the view of Peck's Gindellum, so named after the mycologist. In Russia, it is extremely rare in the Crimea and the Caucasus. Many consider him the most poisonous fungus in the world and even attribute to it mystical properties, because it is capable of releasing a red liquid similar to blood. Because of this, it is called a bloody mushroom or a bloody tooth. In fact, Peck's Gindellum is not poisonous. Some people eat it after careful cooking. But there are few of these, because his flesh is very bitter.

Features

Of course, it is important to know how to distinguish poisonous mushrooms. Outwardly, they can be very similar to edible (for example, false chanterelle, stinging russula, greenfinch). Recognize them can only mushroom pickers with experience. Pale toadstool from champignon is distinguished by the color of the plates, which are white in the poisonous fungus, and dark in the champignon. Toadstool flesh is not as fragile as russula, and greenfinch, unlike toadstool, does not have a vulva. External differences of other types of mushrooms can be different. What they have in common is that poisonous species are never wormy. Some "chefs" test the toxicity with the help of an onion. To do this, put it and mushrooms in a container of water. If the bulb has darkened, it means that the contents of the container must be discarded. Note that these comparisons and experiments can be fatal. Therefore, it is better to avoid dubious mushrooms.

False shadow

Poisonous substances in this gray-yellow fungus are less dangerous than the toxins present in the toadstool. They only affect the mucous membranes, so after taking them for food begins frequent vomiting and diarrhea. The person begins to sweat profusely, he has a weakness.

In the process of dehydration possible headaches. In severe form of poisoning, confusion may occur. However, deaths, although they occur, are still rare.

  • Outwardly, this poisonous mushroom is really similar to the edible openness, so when picking it is necessary to carefully inspect each found specimen.
  • It is easy to confuse them: the false is distinguished only by the tone of the records
  • In edible mushroom, they are creamy (in adult mushrooms, darker, brownish).
  • The false mushroom is equipped with discs of a pronounced yellowish or gray color.
  • There is another sign by which these two types of fungus can be distinguished.
  • False species do not have a characteristic dark spot in the center of the cap.

Often there are two types of them:

  • sulfur yellow hull: the mushroom outwardly immediately attracts attention with its bright color, has a strong, up to 7 cm in size, hat in the shape of a ball, which expands with age, plates are green or similar in color to a hat, but darker
  • brick red: less dangerous, in Europe and Canada after a long treatment they are even eaten, the spherical cap of this false garlic is fleshy, reddish or yellowish-brown, the top of the leg is yellow, the lower is darker, brown

Yellow-white champignon

Poisonous type of fungus that can cause gastric disorders, very similar in appearance to the usual mushroom. The main difference from edible species is a peculiar smell, similar to the aroma of phenol and yellowness, appearing at the place of fracture. The characteristic smell during heat treatment only increases.

  • The Pecheritsa (another name for them) has a white cap with a thin yellow skin and a dark spot in the center.
  • The plates of small mushrooms are light, with age their color changes to gray-brown.
  • The rounded shape of the cap, reaching 15 cm in diameter, changes to a bell-shaped one as it grows.
  • It is found yellow-white champignon everywhere in gardens and parks among overgrown grass, and mixed-type forests.
  • Just like other types of mushrooms, loves moisture, so it grows rapidly during the rainy period from July to October.

Entomoma is poisonous

Contains a highly toxic poison that can cause death. The first sign of poisoning is a severe headache, abdominal cramps and indigestion. Since poisonous substances of the fungus form compounds with blood proteins, it is not so easy to remove them. Therefore, hemodialysis and blood transfusion are used for treatment.

Entomum poisonous to the west and south of Russia grows in young deciduous forests and parks, in fairly well-lit areas with light soil. In the Moscow region forests is very rare - mainly on the soil imported from the south.

  • The cap of this mushroom is yellow or brown, flat and rather wide - up to 20 cm.
  • Its slightly silky surface is covered with a layer of slippery sticky mucus when wet.
  • The plates are rare and large, young mushrooms have cream, and in older specimens their color changes to a pronounced pink.
  • The leg is flexible and long up to 10 cm - breaking its elastic fibers is not so easy.
  • The flesh of white color has the smell of flour.

Entolomum spring with a small tubercle on the cap in size slightly smaller. It appears in coniferous forests immediately after the snow melts and refers to poisonous species. Due to the short growing season, the concentration of poison is slightly reduced, so after its ingestion, fatal cases occur less frequently.

Russula stinging-caustic (gag)

After ingestion of this fungus, symptoms similar to normal poisoning occur. But with regular admission it can cause significant harm to health - it leads to autoimmune changes and anemia. Fortunately, the russula is found infrequently and groups do not grow.

  • It is very difficult to distinguish it from edible red - it can be done only after the spores mature, which change the color of the plates to ocher.
  • It is possible to determine this inedible mushroom to taste - it is hot, acrid, bitter.
  • After taking the bitterness and burning sensation is felt for another 10-15 minutes.
  • The surface of the glossy cap with a diameter of 7-10 cm has an intensely red color, similar to strawberry.
  • In young gagging syroezhek it is pressed against the leg and rises in the shape of a saucer only as it grows.
  • The foot is fragile and breaks easily. White flesh even after the cut does not darken.

Galerina fringed

This extremely poisonous mushroom can easily be confused with summer time. In order to avoid poisoning, it is not necessary to collect it in coniferous forests, where the galina is fringed, it almost does not occur there.

  • As well as pale toadstool, it is very poisonous.
  • At the same time, it is not so easy to distinguish it from summer swell, and in most cases it is simply impossible.
  • She looks the same as her edible counterpart.
  • Hat yellow-brown in the form of a bell.
  • Pulp with mealy smell.
  • The plates of the gallery of medium thickness, with age change color from yellowish to reddish-brown.
  • The long leg to the bottom slightly expanded. Young copies are supplied with a white dense ring.

We think our readers will not hurt to familiarize themselves with the advice of mycologist M. Vishnevsky, who gives detailed descriptions of the most common mushrooms.

You can see them on video

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