The Latin name of the flower is Leucanthemum vulgare.. It comes from two Greek words:
- leukos - translated into Russian as "white",
- anthemon - means flower.
Thus, the scientific name is closely related to the appearance of the flower, similar to white chamomile.
Nivyanik is the Russian name for a plant. It comes from the word "field", which means a wide treeless space. Considering that the cornflower grows on open plots of land, it can be assumed that the Russian name of the flower characterizes its distribution.
In the people, this chamomile (nivyanik) is called differently: belogalovnik, chamomile, nursery, belyushka, meadow nivyanka, novel-grass, white flowers.
The perennial plant grows in height up to 30-80 cm, has a taproot with well developed lateral processes. There is one flower basket with a diameter of 7-10 cm on the sturdy straight stalk above. Tubular flowers (the so-called middle) are always yellow, and marginal (petals) are white.
Depending on the cultivar, the common cucumber may have basal leaves with a tuft edge or stem leaves with a serrated edge.
The fruit of the plant is a cylindrical seed, ripening in September-October after the summer flowering of the nivyanik.
Reproduces this type of vegetative or seed. Differs in frost resistance. Favorable conditions for the growing season are good humidity and light.
Chamomile or not?
Amateur gardeners often call garden chamomile. Of course, flowers have an external similarity, but from a botanical point of view, they are only distant relatives, representing different genera.
To distinguish common grass from chamomile can be based on such characteristic features:
- Nivyanik flower is several times larger than chamomile flower,
- leaves are mainly whole, while chamomile - pinnately-separated,
- whitehead stem is flat and high, always with one flower basket, and chamomile stem has branchy and low stem, with several inflorescences.
Where grows common meadow
The species is widely distributed in Europe, in the temperate zones of Asia, it is found in North America, and has caught on well in Australia and New Zealand. It grows in the European part of Russia, in Siberia and the Crimea, as well as in the Caucasus.
The common gardener, described in the article, prefers open sunny meadows, wide forest glades and light forests, gentle slopes and fields. The flower reaches for the sun and does not take root in shaded places.
How to use Nivyanik
Chamomile-Nivyanik is a beautiful plant that gardeners gladly grow in flowerbeds and garden plots. With it, landscape designers create bright spots in flower beds, effectively combining white heads with golden lilies, pink chrysanthemums, blue cornflowers and bells, purple petunias.
Nivyanik artists make up delicate bouquets, they are decorated with wedding arches, tuples and halls.
In addition to ornamentation, common lad has other advantages. It is widely used in traditional medicine and cosmetology, as well as in cooking (exotic salads and seasonings from the stems and leaves of the plant have a characteristic sharp taste, which is very popular with gourmets).
Planting and care
Those who want to grow a whitehead in their garden should know some rules:
- plant prefers non-acidic fertile soil, moist and well-drained,
- responsive to organic fertilizers that are recommended to be applied before planting at the rate of 15 kg per 1 square meter of area: at the time when the common hemp is in bloom, it can be fed with compost or bone meal,
- does not tolerate shaded areas, needs bright sunlight,
- in dry summers it is necessary to water the cornfield abundantly, preferably in the evening.
The flower is propagated by seeds, cuttings or division of rhizomes.
Seeds are sown in early March for seedlings or in September in open ground. The main drawback of the method is the lack of guarantees for the conservation of the varietal properties of the plant.
For successful grafting using small basal rosettes. It is noticed that the cuttings cut in August rooted best of all, and the plants grow from them strong, with a large inflorescence.
The flower is dug in the spring or in the first 2 weeks of autumn. A sharp knife divide the rhizome into parts - delenki. These delenki are buried in shallow pits with an interval of 30-40 cm and watered. Soon we can expect a whole glade of whiteheads.
Chemical composition and properties
Until now, the composition of the plant has not been fully studied. Scientists have found that the pond is rich in many biologically active substances: flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, tannins, coumarins, inulin and alkaloids. The stems, leaves and petals of the flowers of the whitehead are rich in carotene and ascorbic acid. In the seeds found fatty oils.
Use in traditional medicine
Let's continue the story about the plant Nyvnyak. The photo shows its tenderness and beauty. In addition to decorative, the flower has beneficial properties that healers have long used for the preparation of therapeutic drugs.
Common broth has an antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antioxidant, diuretic and antihelminthic effects on the body. Normalizes blood circulation and metabolism. Cleans the body from toxins, contributes to the conclusion of "harmful" cholesterol.
Infusion of flowers nivyanika used in bronchitis as an expectorant, is also recommended for douching for gynecological problems such as thrush, irregular menstruation and infertility. Nivyanik ointments do an excellent job with eczemas of various etiologies. Sessile trays of decoction of the leaves and stems of the whitehead help get rid of hemorrhoids.
It is interesting that a harmless flower has no contraindications, although doctors advise nevertheless to use it with caution in pregnant and lactating women, children under three years old. It must be remembered that the cereal has a mild laxative effect, so you should not drink it on the road or at work.
How to make medicine from the priestbook
To prepare the drug is simple:
- Infusion for drinking - Pour 2 liters of dried grass with flowers with boiling water, boil for 3-5 minutes on low heat, cool. After strain through a double layer of gauze. Drink 20 g 3 times a day.
- For douching - 2.5 tablespoons pour two cups of boiling water, boil no more than 5 minutes, cool. Very thoroughly strain. Use in the form of heat at night.
- For lotions - a strong decoction is prepared at the rate of 1 tablespoon (without top) of dry raw material for half a glass of boiling water.
- Alcohol drug tincture - take fresh leaves of cornflower and nettle in equal parts, wash, dry. Grind in a blender or grinder. Green mass pour equal volume of medical alcohol. Insist 15 days in a dark place. Strain the tincture. Take 20 drops twice a day.
- Ointment - 2-2.5 tablespoons of dry herbs and meadow chamomile flowers pour in a saucepan, squeeze a small tube (50 ml) of baby cream to the same place. Put in a water bath for 30-40 minutes, while the drug must be constantly mixed with a wooden spatula. After cooling, apply a thin layer on the affected areas three times a day. Ointment stored in the refrigerator.
Preparation of Medicinal Plant
Traditional medicine for medicinal purposes uses the terrestrial parts of the plant: stems, leaves and flowers. Raw materials are harvested from June to the end of August.
Garden shears cut the stem at a distance of 10-12 cm from the ground. Greens are first crushed, and then dried in the open air under a canopy to protect the raw materials from direct sunlight. Store in glass containers or paper bags up to two years.
More than 20 species include the genus Nivyanik. The most famous of them - the common papadnik (L. vulgare Lam). Slightly less common than it is the marsh berry (L. paludosum), the big corn (L. Maximum), the Kuril sylvestor (L. kurilense).
Nivyanik (photo of the flower is in the article) is distinguished by a variety of varieties. Hybrids have a different height, diameter and design of the inflorescence.
The most common is the variety Mei Queen. A large flower with a diameter of at least 10 cm and two rows of snow-white petals adorns the stem with a height of 50-60 cm from the end of spring until the very autumn.
Lacrosse is one of the most interesting hybrids. On a low stem (30-40 cm) a compact inflorescence is placed, decorated with twisted petals with dissected tips.
Snow Maiden, Aglaia and others belong to terry varieties. They have a small flower basket with very short petals.
The undersized variety Snow Kep is used for border decoration.
The Old Kurt variety is particularly decorative: the yellow center of the inflorescence surrounds a double row of narrow curly petals.
The original variety of Banana Cream pleases the eye with yellow reed flowers. Gardeners love it for compactness of bushes and plentiful flowering.
Popular and hybrid Krazy Daisy. A tall flower basket proudly sits on a tall stem (1.0-1.2 meters). In the flower bed, it goes well with ornamental shrubs.
Botanical description of the plant
This is a perennial plant. One shrub produces straight-shaped stems, ranging in height from 0.4 m to 1.3 m . The leaves of the Nivyanik in some varieties are located only at the root, and in other species may be along the entire stem. The leaf is attached as its base, and the stem. The leaf shape of different varieties is also different, it can be paddle and serrated.Daisy
Petals on the flower head can be from 13 to 34 pieces, have a white or pale pink shade. The fruit is bare, ribbed. The plant has a leaf rosette near the root, flowering stems grow from it. The root is short, fibrous. Externally Nivyanik ordinary very similar to the usual meadow chamomile.
How is Nivyanik different from Chamomile?
Very often, this flower is confused with chamomile, this is due to the external similarity of flowers.
They differ in the following ways.:
- inflorescence Chamomile is much smaller
- sheet Chamomile is divided into many small leaves, while Nivyanik has a whole leaf with a dense structure,
- at Nivyanik 1 stalk contains one inflorescence, and chamomile stalks branch and have several inflorescences,
- Chamomile is annual flower, our plant is attributed to perennial species.
Use in landscape design
Low-growing varieties are used to decorate borders and slides. Tall varieties are used to create beautiful bouquets.. The plant looks very nice when planted in groups. Thick green carpet of leaves covered with white floral hat looks gorgeous and unforgettable. In flower beds often combined with cornflower, bluebell, delphinium.
Chemical composition and beneficial properties
In this medicinal plant they found: alkaloids, inulin, fatty oils, ascorbic acid, as well as carotene.
The flower has such properties:
- diuretic property
What benefits does the plant bring?
- relieves pain and cramps,
- calms the nervous system
- whets the appetite
- relieves inflammation and heals wounds,
- normalizes sleep
- stops bleeding,
- boosts immunity
- removes cholesterol from the body
- prevents the occurrence of sclerosis.
Drugs based on it
Pharmaceutical preparations based on this plant are not available now. The plant is used only in traditional medicine.. The decoction is used in the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract, the nervous system, as well as a laxative, diuretic and choleretic agent. Drink infusion to heal: hernia, cold, cough and fever, as well as in order to get rid of worms. For skin diseases, apply ointment and infusion externally.
How to collect and dry?
In medicine, used inflorescences, stems and foliage Nivyanik, which harvested during flowering from the second half of May to early September. Dry in the shade under a canopy or in a well-ventilated area. Store ready dried grass in paper bags in a dry and dark place and not more than two years.
The use of Nivyanik ordinary
Broths are used to treat rashes, as well as for the treatment of skin using natural ointment of ground plants and butter.
Infusion from spasm is used 4 times a day., cooking it is easy, for this: 2 tsp. inflorescences pour 200 ml of boiling water.
Also, a decoction is used to treat: Gastrointestinal, nervous and cardiovascular systems, genital organs, as well as a diuretic and laxative.
Tincture on the stems is used when: bronchitis, cough, tracheitis, diseases of the female genital organs, helminthiasis, hernia and night sweats.
Throughout the summer, Nivyanik can be propagated by cuttings. Apply full-fledged rosettes around the root, cutting them off with a sharp blade so that the leaves are not damaged or decayed. Cut cuttings are planted in the prepared hole and watered abundantly, before the appearance of the first young leaves. After rooting, cuttings can be planted in a flower bed, if they have been planted in before, exclusively for grafting next to each other. The pit for planting is made so deep that the roots are completely covered with earth. After rooting and transplanting watering is reduced a little. It is better to root in August - September.
Divide the roots in spring or autumn, after flowering into small pieces, cutting the root with a sharp knife and immediately planted in a permanent place of growth, in open ground at a distance of 35 cm between the stems. The depth of the pits should be the same as the volume of the roots so that they fully fit in the hole. Water as needed.
Nivyanik (or Leucanthemum) belongs to the genus of annual (usually perennial) herbaceous plants from the Astrove family. Previously, all species of this genus were part of the genus Chrysanthemum, characterized by the presence of grayish pubescence and characteristic aroma.
The scientific name of the genus comes from two Greek words - leukos (which means “white”) and anthemon (translated as “flower”). He received his Russian name "Nivyanik" for preferring to "settle" on the sun-drenched fields, meadows and forest edges, that is, on the "fields".
This delicate white flower, considered the symbol of the sun, blooms throughout the summer, that is, from June to September.
Nivyanik loves well-lit places, whereas in a shaded area the development of the plant as a whole and its flowering in particular significantly deteriorate.
What does a greenberry look like?
Nivyanik can reach a height of 80 cm (it all depends on the type of plant and its growing conditions).
The stem of this plant is straight, leafy and not very numerous. The leaves on it are arranged in a regular order and are distinguished by their integrity (sometimes nivyaniki with pinnately dissected leaves can occur).
Nivyanik inflorescences are single baskets formed at the very ends of the stems. Marginal reed flowers are most often painted white, and tubular median flowers are yellow.
What is different from the daisy camomile?
Often Nivyanik confused with chamomile, which is to blame for the resemblance of plants. But still these are completely different plants, which can be distinguished by the following characteristics.
First of all , the white-yellow flower basket at nivyanik is larger (larger) than that of chamomile.
Secondly , in chamomile, leaves are pinnately-separated, that is, divided into many small leaves. At nivyanik leaves are predominantly whole. In addition, the leaves of Nivyanik are quite dense and tough, unlike soft and tender leaves of chamomile.
Thirdly , the nivyanik has only one stem and one flower basket, whereas in chamomile the stem has branchiness and the presence of several inflorescences.
Fourth , chamomile is an annual plant, but most of the Nivyanik belong to the so-called "perennials".
In addition to these basic differences, there are also less significant and noticeable, as a result of which botanists consider both these plants as distant relatives.
For medicinal purposes, the above-ground part of the berry is used, namely the leaves, flowers and stems. The aerial part is harvested during the flowering period of the plant, that is, from the end of May to the end of August.
The collected raw materials are dried under sheds or in attics, but on the condition of good ventilation.
Common nivyanik (chamomile, meadow garden)
Common cornflower, which is a perennial plant, has an obliquely ascending or horizontal rhizome with a straight and unbranched bare stem extending from it, whose height varies from 20 to 80 cm
The leaves of the plant are alternate, with the basal, as well as the lower stem leaves have an oblong plate, while the other stem leaves are wedge-shaped.
Nivyanik flowers are in large baskets that reach a mark of 3-5 cm in diameter.
The fruit is a ribbed achene without a tuft of 2–3 mm long.
Nivyanik ordinary grows in the European part of Russia, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, as well as in Siberia.
The entire composition of common broth has not been studied.
В этом растении были обнаружены:
- жирное масло,
- vitamin C,
Also, decoction of nivyanik flowers is used externally in the treatment of skin rashes and intestinal spasms in children, for which it is enough to bathe the child in water diluted with decoction.
For cooking broth 5 tbsp. chopped flower baskets should be boiled over low heat in half a liter of water (always in a sealed container) for 3 to 5 minutes. The cooled and filtered decoction is used as a bath or lotion in the treatment of skin rashes and inflamed hemorrhoids. This tool can douche with belyah.
In addition, young and still unblown buds of the plant are fermented or marinated like capers, and then used in saltwort, pickle or in second courses (the capers marinating recipe can be found in the article "Nasturtium in medicine, cosmetology and cooking". "
A vitamin salad is prepared from the above-ground part of the plant from such ingredients:
- Nivyanik leaves - 100 g,
- potatoes - 4 pcs.,
- eggs - 2 pcs.,
- dill - 10 g,
- mayonnaise and salt to taste.
Eggs are hard boiled and ground. Boiled potatoes are also diced. Crushed dill and Nivyanik leaves are mixed with potatoes and eggs, after which the salad is salted and dressed with mayonnaise.
Nevyanik application in medicine
Nivyanik in folk medicine is used as decoctions, tinctures, tinctures and ointments.
Infusion of nevyanik shown with amenorrhea (or no menstruation). In addition, this tool has a sedative effect on the nervous system, removes a feverish state, normalizes the work of the cardiovascular system.
For cooking 1 tbsp. dry leaves Nivyanik pour a glass of boiling water, and then means infused for half an hour, then filtered and drunk during the day for three doses.
For the purpose of external use preparing the same infusion, but its concentration is doubled.
For skin rashes, itching, shingles, scabies, ulcers, it is recommended to apply an ointment prepared from the dry aerial part of the vinegar, ground to a powder, and butter. Both components, taken in the same proportions, are mixed until a homogeneous mass is formed. The resulting ointment is stored in the refrigerator.
You can prepare the ointment and another recipe, using 1 tbsp. grass of the gardener crushed with the help of a coffee grinder and a tube of baby cream (instead of cream you can use petroleum jelly, goose or pork tallow). Mixed components are placed in a boiling water bath, while the tool must be constantly stirred with a wooden spatula. The homogeneous ointment is removed from the water bath and cooled. Apply the product to the affected areas once or twice a day. Stored ointment in the refrigerator.
Tincture of Neivyanik
Nivyanik tincture is indicated for the treatment of hernia, cold, cough, fever, small and flatworms. To enhance the effect, it is recommended to prepare the tincture of fresh leaves of cornflower and nettle, which are taken in equal parts and passed through a meat grinder. The resulting mass is filled with vodka or alcohol (the volume of alcohol or vodka should be equal to the volume of crushed green mass). Infused remedy for 14 days in a dark and cool place. The finished tincture is filtered and applied inside of 30 drops three times a day.
The tincture is stored in a cool and dark place.
You can use the pharmacy tincture of cereal also 35 drops 2 to 3 times a day (the tincture is washed down with water).
Important! Nevyanik drugs can not be taken during pregnancy, breastfeeding and hypotension.
Nivyanik ordinary in official medicine does not apply. However, possessing anti-inflammatory, analgesic, expectorant, properties, nivyanik is widely used in folk medicine for many diseases. Broths, infusions of flowers and leaves of the plant are used internally for colds (bronchitis, tracheitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis) as an expectorant, pains and inflammatory processes of the digestive system, as a diuretic for inflammation of the kidneys and urinary tract. Nivyanik is able to purify the blood of toxins, cholesterol, reduce sugar and blood pressure. They make lotions for hemorrhoids, dermatological diseases, douching in gynecological practice, curing leucorrhoea, absence of menstruation from decoction of leaves and stems of cornflower. Nivyanik grass soothes the nervous system, improves sleep, relieves fatigue. Ointments based on butter and powdered leaves are shown for scabies, skin eruptions, lichen.
Contraindications and side effects
Nevianik ordinary drugs are not taken during pregnancy and lactation. Contraindicated plant for hypotension, as well as children.
Nivyanik - an ornamental plant, popular in gardening. White beaters of the plant look spectacular on the lawn, flower beds, in rabatkah, near ornamental shrubs, the plant pleases with long flowering. Often the common nivyanik is grown for cutting into bouquets, since the plant stays in water for a long time, the terry varieties of the nivyanik are up to 10 days. Nivyanik is unpretentious in cultivation, prefers well-lit places. In shaded areas, the lack of light adversely affects the quality of flowers, there is a deterioration in the development of plants, their flowering. Nivyanik grows well on fertile, cultivated to a depth of 30 cm, fairly moist and well-drained soils.
Common nivyanik is a rhizomatous perennial plant, the height of which varies from 30 to 80 cm. The root is up to 10 cm long, located at an insignificant depth (up to 10-15 cm), growing in an oblique direction. Its numerous lateral roots go deep into the soil. The main root, growing, branches. At its root neck, accessory buds are laid, from which annually stems are formed. Stems are straight, unbranched, bare, slightly pubescent. The leaves of the berry are placed alternately, the lower leaf blades are oblong, whole, the remaining leaves are wedge-shaped. In the first year, the nivyanik forms a small rosette of leaves by the autumn, and only in the second year, flowering and fruit bearing stems are formed. The inflorescences of Nivyanik ordinary are single baskets, developing on the tops of the stems. The marginal reed flowers are usually 20, they are painted white, and the middle tubular flowers are yellow.
The formula of the flowers of the common cornflower, of which the inflorescence consists of: a false-tongue flower - ♀ ↑ ○ Ч (3) T (0) P (2), tubular - * ○ (5) T (5) P (2).
The corolla is large, with a diameter of 4-6 cm. The receptacle is bare, flat, or hemispherical. The leaves of the tiled wrapper are oblong, green, with a brownish, membranous border along the edge. The fruit of the plant is a gray achene, cylindrical, oblong. Nivyanik blooms in June-August, forms fruits in August-October. Propagated by seed and vegetatively.
Sometimes common berry is called chamomile, from a botanical point of view it is wrong. Chamomile (lat. Matricaria) and Nivyanik - different genera. Distinguish plants is easy. So, the flower basket of cornfield is much larger than the basket of chamomile. The shape of the leaves of plants is also different: in chamomile they are pinnately separate, soft, and in nivyanik they are usually whole, firm, rigid. Chamomile has a branched stalk with several inflorescences, while the nivyanik has one inflorescence on one long stalk.
Other species of the Nivyanik genus are also found in nature and in flowerbeds: the largest or largest Nivyanik (Leucanthemum maximum), the magnificent Nivyanik (Leucanthemum superbum), which is a hybrid of the large Nivyanik and Nivyanik lake. Numerous varieties of Nivyanik ordinary in Moscow bloom at the end of May and bloom for up to 45 days. Nivyanik has been listed in culture since about 1500.
Common nivyanik is found in regions with a temperate climate in Eurasia, also known in Australia, New Zealand and North America. Distributed in the European part of the Russian Federation, in Siberia, in the Caucasus, in the Crimea. It grows in meadows, forest glades, meadow slopes, often grows as a weed plant in vegetable gardens and fields.
Preparation of raw materials
For medicinal purposes, the grass nivyanika ordinary: flowers, leaves and stems. The preparation of medicinal raw materials produced in the flowering period of the plant, from the end of May to the end of August. Young stems, leaves and flower baskets are dried under a canopy or in the attic in a well-ventilated room. Raw materials are stored in paper packages for not more than 2 years in a dry, dark place.
Therapeutic effects of cornflower are due to the content of a large amount of ascorbic acid, flavonoids, tannins and other biologically active substances in its composition. Nivyanik grass, possessing anti-inflammatory properties, the presence of vitamin C is effective for colds: bronchitis, laryngitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis. In the course of research, scientists of the University of Voronezh discovered a polyphenol complex in the composition of nivyanik, which provides the main pharmacotherapeutic effect of medicines (decoctions, infusions). Polyphenols in grass nivyanik are represented by flavonoids, tannins, coumarins and hydroxycinnamic acids, the study of the pharmacological activity of which showed prospects for using the plant as anti-inflammatory, choleretic, antioxidant agents.
Broths and infusions of nivyanik have a diuretic effect, relieve pain of various origins, are effective in cardiovascular diseases, because the alkaloids in the composition of the plant eliminate pain, reduce pressure. Nivyanik herb cleans the blood of toxins and cholesterol, has a beneficial effect on the digestive processes, relieves nervous tension. Inulin promotes the synthesis of protein and glycogen, normalizing the work of the organs of the digestive, central nervous system, reducing the level of glucose and cholesterol in the blood. Fat oil provides regenerative processes in tissues and cells, funds from the herb of this plant are used externally to heal wounds and burns. Nivyanik is effective for dermatological diseases. Ascorbic acid normalizes redox processes, increases capillary permeability.
Common people nivyanik are popularly called meadow chamomile, although botanists designate chamomile and nivyanik with different names. For centuries, chamomile - a symbol of Russian nature. The ancient Slavs considered the cornfield a sacred plant. One of the many legends about cornflower, popularly referred to as "chamomile" or "grass-romance", tells about the appearance of this plant on earth. Once a dream was done to a well done fellow, as if he sees a beautiful flower with white thin petals and a golden center. The dream turned out to be true: the flower actually turned out to be on Roman's bed (that was the name of the guy). And Roman had a favorite girl, Maria, with whom he decided to give a wonderful flower. Maria immediately called a delicate flower "daisy" in honor of her beloved. She asked the guy to collect a bouquet of flowers. Roman searched for flowers for a long time and finally found the kingdom of dreams, the ruler of which listened to the boy’s request, agreeing to give him flowers, but suggested that he remain in possession forever. Roman agreed. One morning, Maria saw, looking out of the window, a whole glade of daisies. She understood that her love is alive.
Nivyanik has many interesting titles. For example, “navel” is the name that comes from the shape of a flower: “navel” - “navel” or the middle of a yellow flower, towering surrounded by numerous thin petals. The common name of the nivyanik "chamomile" comes from the Latin "romana", which means "Roman". Sources of medical literature of the Middle Ages called the plant "Romanov flower". From ancient Greek Leucanthemum translated into Russian means "white flower" and comes from the words "euco", which means "white" and "anthemoton" - a flower. The botanical name “Nivyanik” is a plant that grows mainly on “nivas” (arable land, fields).
1. Gilyarov MS, Redkol .: Baev A.A., Vinberg G.G., Zavarzin G.A. and others. Biological encyclopedic dictionary. 2nd ed., Corrected .. - M .: Sov. encyclopedia, 1989.
2. Plant life. In 6 t. V. 5. Part 2. Flowering plants / Ed. A.L. Tahtajyan. - M .: Education, 1981. - p. 472.
3. Gubanov I.A., Kiseleva K.V., Novikov V.S., Tikhomirov V.N. Illustrated determinant of plants in Central Russia. - M .: T-in scientific publications KMK, Institute of Technology Research, 2004. - T. 3. - p. 457.
4.Botany. Encyclopedia "All Plants of the World": Trans. from English (ed. D. Grigoriev and others.) - Könemann, 2006 (Russian edition). - p. 519-520.
5. Yelenevsky A.G. Botany of higher or land plants: studies. for students of higher. ped. studies. institutions, training. on specials "Biology" / A.G. Yelenevsky, M.P. Solovyov, V.N. Tikhomirov. - M., 2001. - 428 p.
Description of common broth
The people of the plant has a different name of the novel-grass, meadow chamomile, belotsvet, popadnik. Nivyanik has a horizontal, shortened, oblique-ascending rhizome. The stem is straight, not branchy reaches a height of 80 cm. The leaves are alternate.
The flowers are collected in single large baskets, on the edge they are asexual, white, reed, median ones are yellow, tubular with stamens and pistils.
The fruit of the plant is ribbed, has an elongated achene, does not have a tuft. Nivyanik begins to bloom in early summer - June, finishes in September, the fruits are ready in late summer and early September. Can multiply vegetatively or with the help of seeds.
Nivyanik can grow on sandy and loamy moist and fresh soil, often found in crops with weeds.
The plant is typical for all Eurasian regions, which have a temperate climate.
Useful properties of common broth
The plant contains alkaloids, inulin, seeds rich in fatty oil.
Nivyanik is the best sedative and anthelmintic agent.
With the help of the plant, you can rinse the mouth cavity, it perfectly removes the pain in the teeth. Because Nivyanik belong to the dental view of the grass. Herb based ointment will help get rid of scabies.
Cuts can be treated with crushed cornfield, traditional healers recommend placing dried grass of cornfield under the pillow, this way you can calm the nervous child who is afraid of everything.
The elevated part of the nursery helps with problems with the gastrointestinal tract, with diseases like a woman.
Flowers with Nivyanik are the best diuretic agent, they are also used for rashes, ulcers, skin lichen.
The use of common broth
A decoction of herbs can be used for small rashes, it is good to bathe children in it if it develops an intestinal spasm and convulsions.
You can make an ointment with frayed nivyanik and butter, it is good for skin diseases.
Nivyanik flowers have anti-spasmodic action, for this you need to prepare an infusion, it will require 2 tsp. flower, 200 ml of boiled water.
Drink up to 4 times a day.
Decoction from grass Nivyanik is an excellent diuretic, it can also be drunk for diseases of the stomach, intestines, also a decoction is the best sedative for the nervous system, it can be used for diseases in gynecology, it helps to get rid of pain and acts as the best laxative.
The stems are used for bronchitis, pulmonary inflammation, leucorrhea, night sweats, tracheitis, for diseases of the female genital organs, uterine bleeding, helminthiasis, sluggish muscle contraction of the uterus, hernia.
Neivyanik-based medicine will help to normalize the cardiovascular system, to prepare it, you need to take a tablespoon of dried leaves of the plant, pour 200 ml of boiled water, insist up to 5 hours.
Tincture with nivyaniki used for coughing, colds and fever. To enhance efficiency, you need to add nettles besides the cornfield, be sure to grind them, then add alcohol or vodka. Insist up to two weeks in a dark place.
The tincture must be filtered and drink up to 25 drops 3 times a day. Keep must be in the refrigerator.
If a woman has no menstruation, you need to use infusion on the basis of nivyaniki.
What does Nivyanik look like: general information about the plant
So what is Nyvyanik -This perennial family of the Astrovykh with a tap root system, the roots of the nursery are distinguished by a red tint.
The stem of the plant is upright, the growth of the plant is from 15 cm (dwarf varieties) to one meter. Some newly bred hybrids grow up to 1.30 cm. The name "Nivyanik" in Russian comes from the phrase "growing in a field," Nivyanik from the botanical point of view is not a daisy, if only because daisy is an annual plant, but the plants are close relatives, as they belong to the same family. but in the people, due to the similarity of inflorescences, the cornflower is considered chamomile.
Did you know?Chamomile - a plant known from ancient times: in ancient Egypt, its flowers were used in ceremonies dedicated to the god of the sun - Ra. In Tibet, chamomile was considered one of the main components in the recipe for anti-aging remedies. Во Франции ромашкой лечили все заболевания, связанные с пищеварительной системой.
Листва нивяника может располагаться у основания стебля или расти вдоль стебля поочерёдно, листовые пластины либо в форме лопасти, либо зубчатые. Nivyanik, depending on the type and variety, may have double, semi-double and simple flowers of white or various shades of yellow. Flowering plant begins in May, re-August-September. In the autumn period, fruits with seeds are formed at the place of the inflorescences.
Common Types of Nevjanik
On the basis of the most popular types of greenberry, a wide variety of garden varieties have been developed - we will consider their description below.
Did you know?In the vast majority of ancient peoples, daisy was considered a symbol of goodness, purity. On the daisy petals they guessed, they wove into ritual wreaths, hung dry bouquets in the house, believing that the daisy would smooth out conflicts. Daisy did not please only the tribes of Central Africa, who believed that the plant attracted evil spirits, the local aborigines destroyed several types of chamomile.
The marsh colony is a short dwarf shrub, up to 30 cm, branched with thin stems. The leaves form like a shovel, grow alternately, the foliage color is saturated green, the edge of the leaf plate is uneven. The marsh marsh plant blooms in the last days of June, flowering continues until the first frost. Its inflorescences-baskets are usually white, the flower diameter is up to 3 cm. The petals are lingular, narrow, the center of the flower is yellow.
Despite the name and the area where the cornfield grows in nature, frequent watering is not necessary for this plant. The marsh Nivyanik prefers sunny areas, although it is not afraid of the shadow. Well responds to mineral dressing. Nivyanik marsh is not afraid of any autumn frosts, nor return spring. Important!With the close passage of groundwater, poor soil drainage, the root system of the gardener starts to rot from excess moisture, gradually the rot spreads to the whole plant.
Kurilian nivyanik in its natural environment is common in the territories of the Kuril Islands and the islands of Japan. A plant with a powerful rhizome, up to 20 cm high. Foliage dissected, thin stems carry single baskets up to 8 cm in diameter. The Kuril nivyanik blooms late, white flowers with a yellow tubular core.
The rock chamomile, as this cornfield is called, has a variety of arcticum. This plant can be attributed to the dwarf - its height is not more than 15 cm. It differs from the main type in the form of a leaf plate: the leaf consists of three to five round-shaped blades. Flowers are the same large, flowering period from July to August. Nivyanik Kuril arcticum is popular in the design of alpine slides.
Nivyanik is the largest - a large plant with a thick, fleshy rhizome and a strong stem up to 70 cm. The plant has dark green large leaves, growing alternately with jagged edges. At nivyanik large inflorescences-baskets with radiate petals and a large yellow center.
This species, unlike the others, has many garden varieties, the most popular of them are:
- Nivyanik "Alaska" - frost-resistant variety, is popular in cold latitudes. This is a tall plant with a strong stem, slightly pubescent, long, narrow, shiny, dark green leaves, large, up to 10 cm in diameter, white flowers.
- The Aglaia variety is a bush variety with a bright green lanceolate foliage form, with a jagged edge, large white flowers, bright yellow center framing needle-like dense petals, which, in turn, are surrounded by larger multilanguage petals.
- Nivyanik "Crazy Daisy" - terry variety, plant height 90 cm. The plant has bluish-green leaves with a central vein, growing oppositely. Flower "Crazy Daisy" looks disheveled because of the numerous petals of different widths. The variety is beautiful in bouquet compositions.
The use of nevyanik in folk medicine
Flower nivyanik is known not only as an ornamental and garden plant, but also as a medicinal. In its composition were found alkaloids useful for the human body, helping to normalize many body functions, vitamin C, carotene, inulin, which is involved in the work of many body systems and fatty oils.
In folk medicine, nivyanik and its useful properties are used to treat a large list of diseases. Broths, tinctures, tinctures and ointments are prepared from the aerial parts of the vineyard. Leaves, stems, and flowers of a plant also have healing properties.
Leaves prepare medicines for the treatment of such diseases:
- fever, cold, cough of various types, relieve asthma, asphyxiation,
- eye diseases
- migraine and other spasmodic pains,
- gastrointestinal colic.
Neivyanka stems help with:
- diseases of the lungs and bronchi, tracheitis,
- treatment of gynecological problems: uterine bleeding, weak uterine contraction after childbirth, fungal infections,
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Flowers plants are used to treat skin rashes and inflammation in children and adults, with eye infections (conjunctivitis), for douching in some gynecological problems, to alleviate the condition with hemorrhoids.
In addition, medications made on the basis of nivyanik, have a calming effect, help to normalize sleep, normalize the work of the cardiovascular system.
Important!Drugs prepared on the basis of nevyanik, contraindicated in pregnancy, breastfeeding and hypotension. Taking medications from Nivyanik is undesirable without consulting a doctor.
Nivyanik is a multifaceted plant: in the garden it is a decoration of flowerbeds, rock gardens, other compositions, in the house there is an elegant bouquet that brings a touch of natural freshness to the everyday interior, medicine in medicine, and delicacy in cooking. Nivyanik's flowers, more precisely, buds, are pickled and used as capers in soups, borscht and other dishes, and the leaves are crumbled into salads.