Grapes have advanced far beyond the borders of the southern regions, they are successfully grown in the northern regions, in the Urals and the Far East. Hybrid forms successfully take root and bear fruit in rural areas. Gala grapes are among the sought-after varieties.
Gala grapes - a popular modern hybrid
Crossing Kodryanka and Gift Zaporozhye, gave the reliability and stability of the new hybrid variety. It has a great shopping look, stands out in the product line, attracts attention with a balanced taste.
Characteristic properties include a description:
- Maturation occurs in the early or medium - early terms (110 - 125 days).
- The growth force of the bushes is big. Tall, they are covered with wide leaves. Vine excellent ripening.
- Self-pollinated variety with bisexual flowers.
- Berries of considerable volume and weight, oval, blue. The mass of one fruit reaches 12 g,
- Brushes weigh 0.5 - 1 kg (there are specimens up to 2 kg), which are cylindrical or conical in appearance.
- There is no pea.
- The taste is balanced, soft.
- The meaty inside of the berry, juicy.
- Acidity is about 7 g / l.
- Sugar content 16%.
The coefficient of fruiting is not too large (1.3). Aging is delayed when the vines are overloaded, deteriorating the quality and taste of the berries. Vintage variety shows always high.
Successfully rooted seedlings. Rarely infected with mildew, oidium. Frost resistance is moderate (-21 ° C).
The bushes are not maintained for a long time, because they are immediately damaged by wasps. Excess moisture leads to cracks in fruits that are not prone to rotting.
Gala grapes should be removed from the bushes immediately after ripening
Prepared cuttings are planted in the ground in the spring, with the exception of late night cold. The variety does not differ increased frost tolerance, so the autumn planting is unsuccessful.
Before immersing the seedlings in the pits, they are subjected to a thorough revision. The roots are shortened. Shoots pruned, weak removed completely. The stalk is fresh and strong. Damage, signs of infection diseases should not be.
Pits are dug to 0.8 m in three dimensions (width, length, depth). A fertile layer of 30 cm is laid on the bottom, 3 buckets of organic fertilizers and superphosphate are added. A sapling with shoots in 2 - 3 peepholes descends into a depression under a slope, and the soil mixture is dropped by 10 cm. Simple earth is poured over it, without fertilizers. Leaving space for watering (5 - 10 cm). A radius of 15 cm around the cutting is made a hole, which is filled with mulch, watered.
Organic and mineral fertilizers are laid in the pit for planting gala.
In order to obtain a stable, abundant harvest, it is necessary to adhere to the description of agrotechnical techniques, which Gala responds with gratitude. The list of events includes:
The introduction of mulch maintains the balance of water in the soil, protects against lower temperatures, saturates the root system with oxygen and nutrients. Mulching events are held throughout the growing season. From the moment of planting, before immersion of the vine to sleep. Before covering up, the plant is insulated by putting peat, straw, special materials, and humus around it. Organic mulch takes an average of 10 cm.
Excessive moisture is bad for the plant. It is necessary to water a grade all vegetative period. But this should be done carefully, taking into account changes in the weather, climate, and the quality of the land. Vegetation continues from mid-spring to mid-October.
Watering is not allowed at the time of flowering clusters. The flowers tend to crumble, and the berries of the variety are not formed. Before laying the branches for the winter, the grapes are watered. It is stored moisture for the long cold months. The approximate amount of water under each bush:
- for the winter at 70 l / 1 sq.m,
- during the growing season 50 l / 1 sq.m.
If the water in the soil is very close, the grapes do not lack moisture. Rather, its quantity needs to be reduced. For this purpose, do drainage.
According to the descriptions of the owners, it is necessary to feed Gala regularly. Only the young stalk does not need fertilizers. For grown bushes, organic matter (compost, peat, humus, etc.) is introduced in proportions of 10 kg / 1 square meter once every 3 times. Mineral dressings are carried out every year. In the spring, as soon as the earth begins to "breathe" it is given ammonium nitrate or nitrogen. Before flowering, as well as after it, when pea-sized fruits are formed in clusters, it is necessary to feed the soil with potassium salts, superphosphate. This will ensure the development of a good harvest.
For the variety Gala it is important to carry out timely pruning. With abnormal load on the vine, the berries are reduced in size, impair the taste. Forces in a properly formed plant are not enough to preserve the quality of the fruit. In the fall, before shelter, the vine is cut, leaving a maximum of 8 eyes. Kidney should not be more than 45 per bush.
Protection from winter frosts, penetrating the winds is organized by the shelter of grapes. Bushes are collected, tied, laid on the litter material (in order to avoid frostbite of the vine), fixed. Metal arcs are installed in the ground, onto which the protective film is stretched. On the sides, it is covered with earth, in order to preserve the structure in case of strong wind and heavy snowfall. From the ends leave the opportunity to open the structure during warming.
Another way to keep the bushes - sprinkle them with a good layer of soil. This method is used in areas with mild winters. Where the air temperature does not fall below the mark -15 ° C.
Shrubs varieties Gala resistant to mildew, oidium. But prevention increases the protection of grapes from disease. If damage is observed on the plant, signs of the disease, it is necessary to take urgent measures to recovery. And, although the probability of damage is negligible, before flowering the bushes will not be superfluous to spray Bordeaux liquid (1%), fungicides.
Mulching Gala conveniently carried out with the help of straw
Value for man
Sort Gala is used fresh, as an independent, very useful product. Delicious, fleshy berries - a great dessert dish. In private homesteads, citizens make home-made wine with dark, sweet and sour, specific, pleasant aroma from dark berries. Grapes are used to make raisins, including them in various culinary recipes.
According to the effect on the body, the description of the properties is arranged in a long list. It is effective for the treatment and prevention of many diseases:
- It contributes to the elasticity, cleansing the lungs, bronchi.
- Makes more plastic vessels, reducing pressure.
- Relieves insomnia, relieves stress.
- Fills the joints, muscles.
- Helps with female diseases.
- It inhibits the growth of tumors.
- Improves brain function.
- Removes toxins from the body.
- Makes skin, hair, nails strong, strong, healthy.
With caution should be used in large quantities for gout, caries, ulcers, limitations of the attending doctor. Not advised to get involved in future moms in the last trimester of pregnancy.
Gala grapes are not only tasty, but also extremely healthy.
The chemical composition of dark berries of the variety contains a list of macro- and microelements, vitamins (PP, C, A, K, B, E). It includes compounds: iron-manganese, zinc-selenium, sodium-calcium, choline-phosphorus. Amino acids contained in fruits stimulate metabolic processes, synthesize hormones and proteins. Due to the low calorie content of the grapes used in the diet menu.
The advantages of Gala are distinguished in the descriptions of all those who grow this variety. These include:
- elegant appearance,
- large-sized bunches and berries,
- consistently pleasing the harvest
- low susceptibility to fungi,
- beautiful ripening
- well tolerated freight.
Among the shortcomings noted: low frost resistance, cracking of fruits with an excess of moisture.
A worthy representative of table varieties, Gala can take its place in the homelands of grape lovers. I would like to point out a wonderful berry to the lyrical statement of the great poet Alexander Pushkin:
"I will not regret about roses, Faded with light spring, I am sweet and the grapes are on the vines, Matured in my hands, The beauty of my valley is greasy, Joy of autumn is golden, Long-lasting and transparent, Like the fingers of a young virgin."
Regular pruning is necessary in order to avoid overloading the clusters, which has negative consequences in the form of a deterioration in the quality of the berries (smaller size, weight, the taste is lost).
The procedure is carried out before the winter shelter, no more than 8 eyes are left on each vine, and for the whole bush the optimal number of buds is 40-45 pieces.
Fertilizing grapes need to constantly, with the exception - not yet formed the cutting. Excellent organic (dung, peat, humus, manure). A proportion of 10 kg per 1 square meter of land is observed.
Once a year, fertilizing is carried out with minerals. In the spring, Gala is fertilized with nitrogen, before and after the flowering period potassium is introduced into the soil.
Shelter for the winter
If the temperature in your area drops below 10 degrees Celsius, the bush should be covered before winter. To do this, it is carefully collected and tied with a rope. Shrubs are stacked on a previously prepared bedding. As insulation suitable conventional bags from under the potato.
About the features of planting varieties
Since the Gala variety has average frost resistance, it is better to plant these grapes in spring, when the frosts are no longer foreseen.
When buying, you need to carefully examine the sapling so that there are no mechanical damages and consequences from illnesses.
Before planting, the root system of the seedling needs to be prepared, that is, cut off the roots. Thus, the roots are refreshed. In addition, you need to shorten and escape, and if they are two or more, then the weaker cut off. On the shoot should remain 2 - 3 peepholes.
For planting grapes digging holes 80x80x80 cm at a distance of 2 - 3 meters from each other. At the bottom of the pit, a layer of 30-40 cm thick fertile land is filled with organic fertilizers (2-3 buckets per pit) and superphosphate.
A sapling is put on this layer with a “heel”, which should be covered with 5–10 cm of the same mixture of soil. Further, the pit is filled with ordinary soil without additional fertilizers, but it is not fully filled.
It is necessary to leave 5 - 10 cm of empty space for future watering. A small fossa with a diameter of 30 cm is formed around the shoot into which, after planting, it is necessary to pour water and fill the mulch.
Tips for caring for a variety of "Gala"
Gala berries can suffer from excess moisture, so you need to be careful when watering. Grapes need moisture throughout the growing season, that is, from April to October.
The first watering is done in early spring, when frost is not foreseen.
After the successful pruning was done (the cuts did not begin to “cry”), you need to water it a second time.
Next, the bushes "Gala" need water if necessaryso that there is no excess moisture.
After you have already removed the clusters from the branches, you need to replenish the supply of moisture for the winter.
The last watering is called water recharge and is calculated as 50 - 70 liters of water per 1 square meter. At all other times, the volume of watering should be 40 - 60 liters per 1 sq. M.
To properly water the grapes, you can install a drainage system or dig a few holes 30–40 cm deep around the bush. These pits should be about 50 cm from the trunk.
Mulching plays a very wet role in maintaining the water balance of the soil. After landing, be sure to cover the hole around the seedlings with mulchso that young roots do not experience a lack of moisture.
Mulch the land should be regularly throughout the growing season. Before covering saplings or bushes, the soil also needs to be mulched. Peat, humus, straw, leaves, and also special materials can be used as a necessary material.
The layer thickness of organic mulch should be about 5 - 10 cm.
To protect the bushes from frost and cold winter wind, they must be covered for the winter.
Before the shelter is required water recharge irrigation!
To cover the bushes, they need to be tied up, laid on the material that has been laid on the ground in advance and secured. After that, special iron arches are installed above the bushes, which need to be well submerged into the ground. On these arches polyethylene or other protective material is stretched, on the side it should be fixed on the ground.
The ends must first be left open before the onset of cold, and then opened already during the thaw. In addition to this method, there is another common. The essence of this method is the dusting of folded bushes with a large amount of earth, and later - with snow. If you do everything right, then your grapes will not be afraid of cold.
Pruning grapes plays a very important role in shaping the future harvest and its quantity. After all, if the load on the bush is too large, then the “Gala” berries will lose their exquisite taste and decrease in size. Therefore, in the fall, shortly before the shelter, you should cut the vines, leaving 6 - 8 eyes.
The total number of buds on one bush should be no more than 45.
Shrubs “Gala” will respond well to fertilization, therefore, regular and proper feeding should not be forgotten. Young seedling no fertilizer needed. But in subsequent years it is recommended to feed at least three times during the season.
You need to make both organic and mineral fertilizers. Humus, compost and similar top dressing is applied once every 2 - 3 years with the calculation of 10 kg per 1 sq. M. Mineral fertilizers are applied annually.
In early spring, you need to make nitrogen, for example, ammonium nitrate. And before and after flowering you need to make superphosphate and potassium salts. As a result, you get a bountiful harvest.
Despite the resistance of Gala bushes to mildew and oidium, preventive measures will not interfere. After all, if any foreign blot appeared on the leaves, then you need to take urgent measures.
The likelihood of such spots on the leaves of “Gala” is small, but you can treat the bushes before flowering with fungicides or 1% Bordeaux mixture. This will precisely protect your bushes from the effects of various fungal diseases.
History of Grape Breeding Gala
“Gala” was bred by the Ukrainian breeder V. Zagorulko by crossing “Kodryanka” and “Present Zaporozhye” in a region with a temperate continental climate.
Immediately after entering the market, the variety was sold at high prices (more than 2000 rubles for a sapling) because of its outstanding qualities.
Currently, seedlings can be purchased for no more than 100-200 rubles, due to the fact that breeders managed to propagate this variety, but it did not lose its remarkable properties.
Type of variety: table.
Berry color: blue. Just like Augusta, the Witch Fingers, and Karmakoda.
"Gala" - a variety of early ripening, gives large juicy berries, with a bright taste and attractive appearance.
Due to its rapid ripening, Gala grapes are ready for use earlier than many other varieties, which ensures high competitiveness in the market and popularity among gardeners with different levels of experience.
Moor, Angelica and Valek are also distinguished by precocity.
Diseases and pests
Disease resistance: high (resistance to mildew and oidium 33.5 points).
Gala grapes almost do not attract pests, if you harvest in time - wasp prefers more fruits of predecessor varieties.
Considerable resistance to diseases and fungus is one of the main breeding advantages of a variety, since the use of chemical processing agents is often not required.
As for the prevention of diseases such as anthracnose, chlorosis, bacteriosis and rubella, you can read more about this information in separate materials of the site.
Since the “Gala” will produce a consistently high yield, the vines must be unloaded, pruning them in order to avoid the loss of the palatability of the berries and the speed of their ripening.
This is done in the fall, before covering up for the coming cold weather.
Shrubs "Gala" practically do not need protection from pests due to natural resistance, but in order to prevent the bushes can be treated with fungicides or Bordeaux liquid 1% concentration.
Processing is carried out immediately before flowering.
Shelter bushes for the cold season: tie the bushes, lay on a specially laid material, fasten, install metal arches on top, which are then stretched polyethylene.
An adult bush “Gala” will need more fertilizer than a young sapling.
Landing is best done in late spring - when the cold has finally receded.
The pit for planting should measure around 80 centimeters in length, width and depth, with fertile land mixed with half the depth 2-3 buckets of fertilizer.
The distance between the pits for different bushes is at least two meters.
Around the seedling installed in the pit you need to make a small hole to create a layer of mulch (leaves, humus, straw), which is necessary to preserve moisture. The layer is then updated up to shelter for the winter.
Proper watering is done exclusively through additional shallow holes with a diameter up to 40 cm — они выкапываются на небольшом удалении от куста.
Такой метод позволяет грамотно контролировать водный баланс почвы и не заливать куст.
Standard watering volume - 1-2 buckets.
The number of irrigations strictly defined.
The first watering is done after planting (or after the garter).
The second watering - a little later, after pruning - no later than a week.
The third watering is needed to stimulate growth when the shoots have grown up to 30 cm tall.
The fourth watering is carried out before the onset of the flowering period.
The next, fifth, watering is when the berries reach about 0.5 cm in diameter.
Sixth watering is done to improve the quality of the crop, shortly before harvest.
The last watering is done before the shelter for the winter.
To summarize, let's summarize the main advantages and disadvantages of the “Gala” variety.
“Gala” is an excellent new table grape variety, which can be one of the best in the grower's collection, and also suitable for those who want to limit themselves to a pair of bushes for their garden. The variety is bred in warm lands and hardly adapts to the middle latitudes, however this is compensated by abundant fruiting.
Also a good decoration of the collection will be the varieties of Giovanni, Moor and Baikonur.