Benefits Badan can be counted on the fingers of one hand. But they are weighty. No wonder this culture was carried away by breeders, having diversified the somewhat monotonous lilac-pink palette of its flowers and even interfered with the coloring of the leaves.
So, bend your fingers. Decorative snow to snow - this time. The ability to live in Spartan conditions is two. He quickly and without hassle grows in the garden plot - three. Versatile in terms of design, it is difficult to even imagine where it will be inappropriate - these are four. Yes, and do not forget about its medicinal properties - they confidently pull on five.
Badany bloom in spring, their bright and elegant dense inflorescences appear among the squat leathery leaves collected in the socket. Glossy elastic leaves attract our attention all summer. They are good in the fall, because they do not dry out and do not fall off, as in most plants, but only redden slightly, leaving alive under the snow, and the living and unharmed appear from under it next spring.
TYPES OF BADAN
In the forests of Siberia and on the mountain slopes of the Altai, the bergenia is growing thick-leaved, which is often grown in gardens. In Altai is growing another species - heart-like bergeniaThe name itself indicates a distinctive feature - heart-shaped leaves. The flowers of these two species are purple-pink. High in the Himalayan mountains, if you are lucky, you can find the low bergenian Strechi - about 15-30 cm high, with oval leaves and light pink inflorescence on a greenish-brown peduncle. He became famous among breeders by miniature "musical" varieties - Beethoven, Bach, Brahms, Britten, obtained in Germany in the 1970s.
In the Himalayas and in Tibet there is bane ciliated, distinguished by white and pale pink inflorescences, as well as leaves with cilia along the edge. And his breeders noticed, crossed with thick-leaved tree, getting a garden hybrid - Badman Schmidt.
BADANS NOT ONLY PINK ...
In modern gardening, not so much the types as Badana are very popular. Many varieties, known in Russia, are related to the most stable berkan thick-leafed or serdselischnuyu or have a hybrid nature. The palette of flowers varies from white, white and pink, bright magenta and lilac-pink to dark red. Purple-red flowers in a common variety PurpureaSignor variety with lilac-pink flowers looks like it. The inflorescence is more attractive when the dark color of the pedicel contrasts with a light halo, as in the variety Morgen company. Very spectacular varieties of Badana with dense inflorescence and semi-double flowers - Sakura, Abendglut and Angel Kiss. The corolla's color, though slightly, changes when the flower reaches its peak, the leaves are transformed in the fall - depending on the place of planting and the weather, they become carmine, lilac-red and even fiery-scarlet. For landscape design, unusual variegated bergenia are valuable (Solar Flyer, Tabby Andrew), there is a yellowish or dark burgundy autumn color foliage.
BADAN - CARE
Badan is really quite capricious, tolerates drought and any light on the site, withstanding even the sun, although it likes penumbra more. However, it blooms lush with good light. It is so picky that it grows with pleasure on any soils, it grows especially strongly on stony, fertile and loamy, worse on poor sandy loams. For bergenia good drainage is desirable, the absence of stagnant water, with regard to acidity, it is better to be slightly acidic or neutral.
LANDING AND TRANSITION OF BADAN
Planting and transplanting are possible in spring, late summer and autumn. From the purchased containers Badan can be planted in the summer. Plants are placed 20-30 cm apart. There is no particular need for soil mulching under the badan itself, since its large leaves rather tightly closed.
If the soils are very poor and the increments are small, then you need top dressing with full mineral fertilizer (10 g / sq. M), better in spring. Although the bergenia is resistant to drought, but with strong heat and prolonged absence of precipitation, watering is necessary.
Badan can for a long time, almost always, grow in one place, too thickened curtains can simply be pulled through if there is such a desire. In the spring of Bergenia you need to remove all the old dried leaves, which can be useful for therapeutic purposes. After flowering, you can cut pruning shears with shears, so the curtains of glossy leaves will look neater.
HOW MULTIPLE BADAN
The easiest and easiest way to grow bergenia - the division of rhizomes. Badan is so simple and well propagated that from one adult plant without problems and special skills at a time you can get up to 10-20 children of deokes, creating from them a rather large family over time. A strongly overgrown specimen is chosen and a neatly sharp shovel, shears or just a strong knife separates part of the rhizome with a rosette of leaves from it. On a segment of rhizomes (about 10 cm long), 2-3 young leaves are left. Before planting, remove all dried and broken off leaves, cut off the old parts of rhizomes.
Planted delenki to a depth of 3-5 cm, so that the base of the leaves were above the level of the soil. Then the soil is compressed tightly around the planted plant and watered abundantly. August or the beginning of September will be the best time for dividing badan, then the sapling will have time to take root before the onset of cold weather.
Propagation by seeds is also possible, but it is a longer and troublesome process. Regardless of whether they are their own or bought in beautiful bags in the garden center, it is better to sow them in the fall, so that in winter they will be under the snow covered with a layer of fallen leaves. Since the seeds are very small, then for sowing it is better to take flower pots or garden containers filled with soil mixture made up of equal parts of sand, garden soil and humus.
Sow them almost superficially, only a little sprinkled with fine sand. In the spring, shelter from crops should be removed so that it does not interfere with emerging seedlings. During the season, the pots are watered, but so that there is no “swamp” inside. In the second year, seedlings reach a height of only about 2 cm. Only at the end of summer they swoop. In the third year, the seedlings reach 8-10 cm, and in the 4th year they rise even higher and finally bloom.
Do not think that the merits of badana are limited only to the decoration of the site. Badan has long been considered a medicinal plant.
The lowest leaves that have suffered more than one winter become dry and dark brown. They can be collected for the preparation of a tonic drink - Mongolian tea, which is brewed like regular tea.
This tea quenches thirst, it is useful for digestive disorders, helps at high temperatures, lowers blood pressure and strengthens the walls of blood vessels. When bleeding gums, use it as a rinse. Bergenia leaves contain more than 20% tannins, it is even more than in oak bark.
BADAN'S BENEFIT: ON THE STOPS OF TIBETAN MEDICINE
Badan plate is used in Tibetan medicine.
Dried roots and rhizomes of Badan contain phytoncides, vitamin C, biologically active polyphenols (10-20%), organic acids, sugars (up to 9%), starch (40%), essential oils, glycoside arbutin (30%), microelements - iron and copper, a lot of tannins - tannins (18-27%). Infusions and decoctions of rhizomes are used for tuberculosis and pneumonia, articular rheumatism, gastrointestinal diseases, kidney diseases associated with contusions, as a febrifuge, for the treatment of intestinal disorders, wound healing. They have astringent, anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. Rhizomes harvested in autumn or early spring. They dig, clean from the ground and thin roots, then cut into long light pink slices and dry indoors for 2-3 weeks, but they quickly darken in the open air. Store rhizomes no more than 3 years.
For the preparation of anti-inflammatory extract take 3 tbsp. spoons of dry rhizomes, pour 1 cup boiling water and evaporated in a water bath. Take 30 drops 3 times daily before meals. Liquid extract from rhizomes of Bergenia is recommended as an astringent, wound healing and antimicrobial agent, it even lowers blood pressure.
For the preparation of therapeutic broth take 1 tbsp. spoon crushed rhizomes, pour 1 cup boiling water and simmer for 30 minutes. Then cool and filter. Take 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times daily before meals. In folk medicine, they drink with gastrointestinal diseases, dysentery, sore throat.
© Author: A. KUKLINA, Candidate of Biological Sciences
Bergenia thick-leaved - low perennial herb with a thick creeping rhizome, reaching several meters in length and up to 3.5 cm in thickness, from which the large vertical root departs. The rhizome is black on the outside and yellow on the break. Stem (flower arrow) without leaves, up to 50 cm high, bearing a large sprawling paniculate inflorescence. Wintering leaves, whole, broadly or almost rounded up to 35 cm long, bare, shiny, leathery, collected in the rosette. The flowers are lilac-pink, bell-shaped, separate-petal. Calyx five-leaved, welded at the base, 5 leaves, 10 stamens, ovary half-lower, two-crested, fruit - a box with numerous seeds. It blooms in May and July, high in the mountains - in August.
The prevalence of badan thick
Badan thick-leaved grows in the mountains of Altai, Kuznetsk Alatau, Western and Eastern Sayans, Baikal and Transbaikalia, in forest, subalpine and alpine belts at altitudes of 2000-2500 m above sea level, on mountain slopes, more often northern, on stony soils, blocks, rocks and also in dark coniferous (cedar, fir) and deciduous forests. Due to the branching of rhizomes, it forms a dense, dense thickets, occupying tens of square kilometers.
Medicinal raw materials of bergenia
For therapeutic purposes, rhizomes with roots are used, rarely leaves of Bergenia thick-leaved. Rhizomes harvested throughout the summer. They are easy to pull out of the soil by hand. They are cleared of soil, washed with water, small roots are removed, large ones are cut into pieces. It is dried in air, then dried in dryers for 3 weeks, with a quick drying the amount of tannins decreases sharply.
The composition of bergenia
The leaves and rhizomes of thick leaves are tannins (up to 27% in rhizomes, up to 22% in leaves), belonging to the gallotanin group (up to 8-10% tannin). The rhizomes also contained glycosides bergerin and arbutin, starch, trace elements - manganese, titanium, nickel, copper, zinc, strontium, iron, in leaves - hydroquinone, ascorbic acid (up to 260 mg%), sugar.
Properties of bergenia
The plant has phytoncidal activity, and due to the high content of tannins - a pronounced astringent property, causes superficial compaction of tissues, accompanied by restriction of gland secretion, reduction of pain and weakening of the inflammatory response. Arbutin, present in the roots and rhizomes of Bergenia, has an antimicrobial effect. Therefore, the activity of Badan preparations is noted when infected with dysenteric and intestinal sticks, but it weakens with typhoid fever. This justifies the use of badan in inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity (colitis, enterocolitis, stomatitis, gingivitis) and in gynecological practice. Bergenia preparations also have hemostatic properties. According to research conducted at the Irkutsk Medical Institute, an extract of leaves and rhizomes has astringent, anti-inflammatory, diuretic and disinfecting properties.
The data of scientific studies of Omsk pharmacologists show that preparations of bergenia thickeners lower arterial blood pressure and increase heart rate. Bergenia extracts successfully treat cervical erosion, bleeding and fibroids. A dry extract is obtained from the leaves of plants, comprising 35% arbutin and up to 40% polyphenols.
He showed antimicrobial activity against pyogenic microbes, while not acting on the normal microflora of the body. From the leaves and rhizomes of Bergenia, a drug with anti-cancer activity has been isolated. The extract from the leaves has anti-stress, anti-hypoxic and performance-stimulating action. It has been confirmed that the addition of rhizome powder to the barium suspension during fluoroscopy of the colon helps relieve spasms and improve the condition of patients. From the rhizomes of bergenia obtained and P-vitamin preparation.
Badan thick-leaved in traditional medicine
In Tibetan medicine Badan thick-leaved is used for pulmonary tuberculosis, kidney diseases associated with contusions, articular rheumatism, gastrointestinal diseases, and in Mongolian medicine for nausea and vomiting. In folk medicine, infusions and decoctions of badana rhizomes recommend as an astringent, hemostatic, disinfectant and anti-fever agent, for diseases of the oral cavity, nose, for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, women's diseases, headache, fever, for healing wounds, for inflammation of the lungs. Badan leaves are widely used for diarrhea, fever. Tea from old leaves of the plant is used in diseases of the urinary tract, with goiter, toothache. Rhizomes after soaking eat. Powder from dry roots of bergenia sprinkled wounds and ulcers to speed up their healing.
Description of Pacific Badan
Badan Pacific - a perennial herb with rhizomes thick as a finger, located on the surface of the soil and wearing the remnants of last year's leaves. Single stalks, 30-40 cm tall, ending with large buds of pink flowers. Leaves are basal, leathery, oval, in the fall reddish color. Badan Pacific blooms in May and June.
Pacific Badan Properties
Bergenia preparations are approved for use by the Pharmacological Committee. They have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, hemostatic and astringent properties. Used as an extract for the treatment of intestinal diseases of non-infectious origin, in gynecological practice for the treatment of cervical erosion.
Badan Pacific in traditional medicine
Broths of petioles and rhizomes of the Pacific Badan are used in folk medicine as an astringent, restoring and disinfectant. Leaves are applied to burns. Infusion of leaves is used for diarrhea and as a febrifuge. Powder dry roots sprinkled wounds for their quick healing. In traditional medicine of China, powder prepared from dry Pacific Rhizomes is used as a wound healing agent for weeping rashes.
Badan thickIt is distributed in Siberia, in the south-east of Kazakhstan, Altai, in Northern Mongolia, China, and Korea. CA vegetative shoot has a height of up to 60 cm during the fruiting period. Flowers lilac-pink color collected in dense inflorescences.
Badan plate has bell-shaped flowers up to 12 mm in size, divided almost to the middle into rounded petals. Peduncles applicable for cutting. It blooms one of the first, blooms for about 50 days.
The leaves of the bergenia large, up to 20 cm wide, shiny, widened to the top and rounded at the base, rich green color, in the autumn become bright red.
Rhizome thick, up to 3-5 cm in diameter, creeping, branches strongly enough, forming dense thickets. Badan thick-leaved - the most common type of bergenia, so it is most often used in gardening.
Where does such badan grow? In the open area and in shady places where there is no long stagnant moisture. In a small shade the leaves will be larger.
Badan PacificIn nature, distributed in the south of the Far East. The leaves are egg-shaped, wedge-shaped at the base, with a grooved edge, bright green color. Leaves up to 9 cm wide, up to 15 cm long, do not overwinter. The length of the petioles is less than the length of the leaf plate.
Flowering stem of a reddish shade up to 45 cm high, may have one scaly leaf. Inflorescences of bright pink color up to 2 cm in length. It blooms in early spring, blooms for about a month, the fruits ripen in June-August. Badan Pacific is very similar to the thick-leaved, but its leaves are smaller and lower, and the inflorescences are not so thick.
Homeland berdan cardiovascular - Altai. Plant up to 40 cm tall.
The leaves are heart-shaped, dense, dark green, wintering under the snow.
The flowers are bell-shaped pink, but there are varieties with white flowers.
Racemes inflorescences. The flowering period is about 20 days, blooms in May.
Badan UgamskyThis species has a narrow localization and grows only in the Western Tien Shan. It was found on the Ugamsky ridge, whence the name of this species. It grows at an altitude of 2800 m above sea level. Very small view.
Its leaves are large, up to 13 cm wide and up to 15 cm long, leathery, glossy, have an oval shape. The edges of the leaves with sharp teeth, on which there are notches of the second row. Цветоносы крепкие, высотой до 30 см, как правило, с одним чешуйчатым листиком.
Соцветия густые. Цветки бадана угамского до 1,8 см в длину, состоят из 5 лепестков розово-малинового цвета. Цветет в июле–августе. Опыт выращивания в садах неизвестен.
Бадан ШмидтаЭтот вид имеет матовые, эллипсообразные, тёмно-зелёные листья до 15 см в ширину и до 25 см в длину с зубчатыми краями и длинными черешками.
Отличительной особенностью этого вида является строение листьев – у основания черешка расположены небольшие выступы, напоминающие крылья.
Flowers bright pink-scarlet, drooping at the beginning of flowering, gathered in dense inflorescences. In the fall, leaves can become a deep red, even ink shade.
Badan StrechiThis is the smallest view. originally from the Pamirs and the Himalayas. Its leaves are glossy, oblong, deeply serrated along the edge, up to 10 cm in length and up to 5 cm in width.
Winter hardy leaves. Peduncles large, up to 30 cm tall, on which flowers of white and pink color can simultaneously be. The gardens bloom in May.
Badan ciliatedIt grows in Tibet and the Himalayas. It has rounded, weakly heart-shaped at the base, leaves covered with bristles up to 35 cm in length, green, and in autumn a reddish-bronze color, with jagged or rounded-jagged edges.
Petioles too bristly. Peduncles dense, up to 30 cm in height, with few large white flowers with a pale pink shade, which darken when flowering. When frosts are above 18 ° C, leaves die off in winter.
Very rare species, in gardening is not common. It has rather large, dull, oblong leaves of obovate shape, smooth, with densely ciliated edges. Flower arrow up to 20 cm in height. The flower brush consists of 6-8 flowers located on one side. The flowers have 5 petals of light pink or white color.
Badan HybridBadan hybrid is a variety of badan, obtained from the crossing of different species for decorative use in gardening. The varieties of bergenia hybrid are very diverse.
The color of flowers varies from white to deep lilac-purple and purple-red shades. The leaves can be of different size and shape with smooth or wavy edges, have a monotonous or spotty color and degree of color in autumn.
This is a form of bergen ciliated. Badan Himalayan, in contrast to ciliate bergenii, has smaller leaves, covered with bristles at the edges and from the back side, and almost smooth from the front. Peduncles up to 30 cm tall, flowers are almost white with dark sepals.Bergenia is easy to breed in the garden.
Even if you plant a very ordinary variety on a small plot, Badan will revive it in spring, add shine in summer and brightly decorate it in autumn.
When the ears of the elephant turn red?
Badany decorative from spring to late autumn. In spring, these are spectacular flowering plants, in summer they gallantly set off the beauty of other flowers with a magnificent carpet of green leaves, and at the end of the season, thanks to the autumn coloring, they are again in the spotlight.
Badan - a plant winter greenin the fall, the leaves do not die off, but rather charmingly blush and persist under the snow until spring. In some varieties, only the veins and the edge of the leaf redden; in others, the entire leaf is completely red, demonstrating various shades of purple, bronze and fire.
In nature, the leaves are dark green, but among the varieties there are plants that stand out in purple and bronze color not only in the fall, but also in the rest of the year. Added to them and fashionable golden-green badany. Elegant leaves alone would already be enough to consider a bergenia a magnificent ornamental plant. But it also blooms!
Badana flowers resemble small pink, crimson or white bells. They are collected in branched corymbose inflorescences on straight thick legs. It is curious that at the beginning of flowering the flower stalks are very short, the flowers in pink “heaps” lie among the leaves, but every day the stems rise higher and the branches of inflorescences are extended. Finally, the peduncles straighten to their full height, and the curls of the inflorescences curve downward in a picturesque manner. At this time, they look like miniature pink palmochki grown among giant lacquered lopushki. (That's why the same variety may look different, depending on whether the plant was photographed at the beginning or at the end of flowering).
Types and varieties
In late April, when the earliest badanas bloom - hearty and plate, the garden is filled with colors not only from the flowers, but also from the bright butterflies that flock to Badana for nectar. There are few such abundant sources of nectar in the early spring, and peacock and limonnitses, wintered over the years, continually visit the flowers. On one inflorescence you can find up to two or three bright butterflies at the same time. And bumblebees do not even wait until the flowers open completely. They manage to get nectar through a tiny hole in the center of the bud, as soon as the petals begin to diverge.
Some varieties of badany, for example ‘Rosi Klose’, Have longer blooms. Late badans ‘Overture’, ‘Eroica’, ‘Beethoven’Bloom until June, and varieties such as‘Abendglocken’, ‘Andrea’, ‘Morgenrote’, ‘Pink dragonflyTo the joy of butterflies, bumblebees and bees are blooming late summer re. Early flowering Badanov possible due to the fact that peduncles laid in the kidneys in the fall. By the end of flowering young leaves begin to grow.
Despite all the charm of the Badan, many still have to discover this plant for themselves. Modern varietal diversity reaches our gardens slowly. We often judge badanas by those plants that were seen in the adjacent garden, while there are many spectacular new products.
Pink color bells Badana in new varieties represented by an unusually wide range. Flowers may be pinkish-white like apple flowers, crimson and purple-red like fuchsia. Interesting nuances are created by the color of the calyx and flower stalks, for example, in a contrasting combination of a light floral corolla with dark ruby-red cups and stems. Varieties can also vary greatly in leaf size - from giants like ‘Ballawley' or 'Eden’s Magic GiantAbout 60 cm in height to small compact plant varieties ‘Wintermarchen’, ‘Dark damsel’, ‘Baby doll’And‘Angel kiss’.
In our gardens are most common Siberian badany hearty (Vergenia cordifolia) and thick plate (Vergenia crassifolia). Great variety in the modern range made Pamir Badan Strechi (Vergenia stracheyi) and Himalayan Badan ciliated (Vergenia ciliate). Badan Strechi attracts with its miniature size, its height is only 15 cm. Forms also became widespread in floriculture Alba and Afghanica. Bergenia ciliate is interesting with unusual leaves. They are not glossy, but bristly, and these create special opportunities for design: cilia collect dew. Extremely elegant high mountain Chinese Badan Umaje (Bergenia omeiensis). The flowers that have just appeared are pure white; by the end of flowering, they turn slightly pink.
Site Selection and Landing
Glory to Badan shade-tolerant plants, and open sunny places they get in the gardens infrequently. However, you need to choose a place depending on the desired result. In the penumbra, where the soil retains moisture longer, the bergenia grows with a juicy carpet, but does not bloom so effectively. In the sun, it will amaze you with magnificent blooms, but most likely there will not be a lush green carpet in the shade. In the sun, these plants will need watering.
The soil for badan does not matter. Nevertheless, the most effect but the plants look on the moderately fertile treated garden soils, cleared of weeds. If, before planting, you get rid of the rhizomes of the snyti and other perennial weeds, then in the future, the Badan will not let unwanted aliens into its thicket. Its leaves are closed and jammed random shoots.
Very important for badana drainagebecause the stagnation of the water plants can not stand.
When creating large groups of plants are planted at a distance of about 40 cm from each other, as the growing rhizomes need to provide enough free space for branching.
In nature, the old blackened leaves of Bergenia accumulate around plants and serve as natural mulch. In the garden, we prefer a tidy view of plantings, so they get rid of old leaves in spring, as a result, the soil under the plants dries out faster. We can compensate for the damage caused to the plant by mulching the soil under the tree of banana with decorative chips, bark and other materials of our choice. It is also occasionally useful. mulch plants and leaf humus or compost.
Reproduction is possible by dividing the bushes, cuttings and seeds. For bruising it is better to choose part of the rhizome with apical bud. 2-3 young leaves are left in the socket, the rest are removed. The cuttings are planted to a depth of 3-5 cm. The best time for grafting comes immediately after flowering and continues until August. Plants from cuttings bloom in the second or third year.
Shared bushes in early September. The hardest thing to propagate bergen seeds. They are small, seedlings grow slowly, demanding the most careful care. Therefore, it makes sense to resort to seed reproduction only when breeding rare natural species or for breeding purposes. Seedlings bloom with good care in the 3-4th year.
Badan in garden design
The creeping form of growth suggests where a badan can manifest itself in the best possible way. It is planted in the foreground of flower beds, along paths, in large groups in front of shrubs and as an evergreen ground cover plant under the trees.
Badany are very good in rocky gardens and in compositions with conifers. That is how they often grow in nature. Forming picturesque thickets, bergenia can be places and a successful replacement of the lawn that does not require a haircut. Compact miniature badany suitable for small slides.
Planted these plants and gravel gardens, and on the banks of reservoirs. The unpretentiousness and winter hardiness of many varieties allow the use of badany in a variety of design options, in the sun, in the shade and on poor rocky soils. Varieties with high peduncle suitable for cutting. Badany good in container compositions, especially for shady places.
Text: I. Volkovskaya. Photo: S. Kalyakin, S. Kovalenko.
Badan is a perennial herb that grows wild in Central and East Asia. It belongs to the genus of the same name, which, in turn, belongs to the Kamenelomkovye family. The Latin name bergenia (bergenia) Badan was named in honor of Karl August von Bergen, a German botanist and doctor of medicine who lived in the 18th century.
Stone saberfoil - the first name of the plant
Badan science became famous after 1760when the Swedish physician and naturalist Karl Linney received a sample of an unexplored Siberian plant from the Imperial Botanical Garden of St. Petersburg. It received the name “stonefrass of the plate” and was long known under this name until the German professor of botany and the opponent of Karl Linnaeus Conrad Mönch did not single it out into a separate genus.
Large dark green leathery leaves of Bergenia collected in the rosette. With the onset of autumn, they begin to acquire reddish, brown, orange or crimson shades, giving the plant a colorful and exceptional decorative effect. First, the leaf veins turn red, then its edges, and then the entire leaf plate.
In an attractive autumn garden, such an attractive plant will definitely not go unnoticed. On the contrary, Badan will serve as a magnificent decoration of a personal plot. Even some decorative leaves are enough to make a choice in favor of planting a bergenia in the garden. But this plant also blooms beautifully!
Badan will always stand out among other plants in the garden.
Flowers Bergenia may have a white color or all shades of pink, crimson and lilac. They are collected in loose paniculate inflorescences on thick leafless peduncles that appear in early spring among the leaves and continue to grow in height even in the process of flowering. Badania blooms in spring - early summer. Flowering continues for two to three weeks.
This plant is drought-resistant and frost-resistant, and the Badan leaves its shiny, succulent leaves that remain green even under a layer of snow. Thick rhizome grows horizontally and is located at a shallow depth. Therefore, perennial grows in breadth, forming a picturesque thickets, and can be aggressive for nearby plants.
Badan can be considered long-lived. At one place without transplants, this perennial grows and feels good for 10-15 years and even more. However, it is recommended to divide bushes in 4-5 years: This contributes to their vigorous growth and lush bloom.
General view of the plant
Today, there are ten kinds of badan.which are wild in the temperate climate of Asia. They grow mainly in mountainous areas in a vast area from Central Asia to China and Korea, including the southern part of Siberia and the Far East, Afghanistan, northern Mongolia and the Himalayas.
Natural habitats of plants are alpine meadows and poor soils of scree and mountain slopes. Among the varieties of bergenia are annual plants, however, most species are evergreen perennials.
Types of Badan
All types of bergenia are divided into two groups.
Depending on the territory where the plants grow, All types of bergenia can be divided into 2 groups (according to morphological features):
The most widespread in culture are two types of plants: the thick-leaved and heart-shaped badany, which belong to the first group.
We will talk about these and other interesting types of bergenia, which can be successfully grown in our gardens.
When it comes to Badan, it is often possible to hear the names of this plant as “kamnelomka” or “Mongolian tea”. In the wild, this plant is widely distributed in Siberia, Kazakhstan, Primorye, in the northern regions of Mongolia, as well as in China and Korea. Badan thick-leaved grows on stony slopes, in coniferous and deciduous forests and in mountainous areas up to a height of 2000 m above sea level.
It is this species that is most prevalent in culture.. These plants are shade tolerant and quite demanding of moisture. A thick leafless stem reaches a height of 50 cm, and the rhizomes have a diameter of 3.5 cm and numerous branchings that are located close to the soil surface.
Bergenia leaves - medicinal plant. As a healing raw materials used rhizomes, at least - the leaves. Bergenia preparations strengthen the walls of blood vessels, help to reduce blood pressure, have a hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, astringent and antimicrobial action.
Shrubs of this type of bergenia reach a height of 40 cm. Its dense or even coarse leaves are dark green in color and heart-shaped. It is for this reason that heart-like badan has received such a name.
Plants of this species bloom in May, and bloom lasts about twenty days. Small flowers, collected in dense kisteobraznye inflorescences, most often have colors lilac or pink gamma.
Less common varieties with flowers of white or pale lilac color.
It is a herbaceous perennial plant with thick rhizomes and dense leaves, having an oval shape and a diameter of up to 20 cm. Peduncles of this species grow to 40 cm, and the flowers, collected in lush inflorescences, have a lilac shade and are shaped like small bells. This type of bergenia blooms in May-June.
The leaves of the plant remain decorative throughout the growing season.: in summer they are green, and in autumn they get a beautiful reddish tint. In the wild, Badan Pacific grows among the stones, forming dense thickets.
This is perhaps the smallest of all kinds.. Its homeland is Central Asia, the Pamirs, the rocky slopes of the Himalayas, Afghanistan and China. Small glossy leaves have a length of 10 cm, and a width of 3-5 cm. They can be kept quite well under the snow cover.
Peduncles reach a height of 30 cm. The plant blooms in May for two to three weeks with white or pink flowers. German breeders worked with this species a lot, who based it created a whole series of varieties with creeping stems and small leaves.
This plant is originally from Tibet and the Himalayaswhere it grows in shady forests and on mountain ledges, rising to an altitude of up to several thousand meters above sea level. This species has round "bristly" leaves and white or pale pink flowers.
In regions with severe frosts, the leaves of these plants die off in winter., but the bushes themselves successfully winter and in the spring grow new foliage.
This species includes garden hybrids obtained by crossing a thick-leaved species with a ciliated. As a result, a strong plant with oval leaves of a dark green shade up to 25 cm long was bred.
Leaves sitting on long petioles have jagged edges and sparse hair fringe.. Bergenia Schmidt blooms with bright pink flowers, gathered in dense inflorescences.
Today, breeders are working to create new hybrid varieties of this unpretentious perennial. They differ from each other in the size of the bushes, flower color, shape and shade of leaves. But all badany, regardless of the variety, are exclusively ornamental plants.
Badana leaves varieties Tubby Andrews
Of interest is the “musical” series of hybrids, named after famous composers. These plants are characterized by unpretentiousness and winter hardiness. They are relatively small, but large flowers.
Badanov series, bred in Germany, includes varieties:
- "Betchoven" ("Beethoven")
- "Bartoc" ("Bartok")
- "Britten" ("Britten")
- "Borodin" ("Borodin")
- «Bach» («Бах»)
- «Bizet» («Бизе»)
- «Brahms» («Брамс»)
Среди сортов бадана встречаются настоящие гиганты высотой 50 см («Hidenuspe», «Schneekofcnigin») и довольно компактные растения, достигающие до 30 см («Abendglut», «Baby Doll»). Ornamental varieties with unusual for badanov motley foliage (“Tubby Andrews”, “Galina Serova”) were also derived.
Bergenia propagate in different ways: seeds, cuttings and division of rhizome.
Let us dwell on each of them in more detail:
Young seedlings need pritenyat, water and weed weeds that interfere with the normal growth and development of plants. At the beginning of autumn or next spring, seedlings should be speared, and in the first winter - to be mulched with a rather thick layer of peat or dry humus.
Plants that have grown from seed, bloom for 3-4 years after sowing. Seeds can also be sown in March in greenhouse conditions, and the emerged seedlings swoop down and plant in open ground in June.
Delenki planted on the prepared site. It is better to plant the plants at a permanent place right away, because the Badan doesn’t like too frequent changes. Cuttings should be seated about 40 cm apart. For the first 2 weeks after planting, plants need regular but moderate watering.
The separated part of the rhizome is planted in its place, making the distance between the plants not less than 30-40 cm. Be careful not to replant the bergenia so as not to damage the roots. The planting is carried out to a depth of no more than 5 cm. In the first year, the plants form a rosette of leaves, and bloom for 2-3 years.
Care of a plant in an open ground
Badan - a plant not too demanding
Badan is not too demanding to care. Growing this plant, you need to monitor the soil moisture and try to prevent both its drying and stagnant moisture. Loosen the ground around the bushes should be careful not to damage the roots close to the surface.
In the spring of bergenia, you can feed the universal mineral fertilizer in the dosage specified in the manufacturer's instructions. Feeding is carried out a second time after the bergen has faded. It was at this time that the plant lays new rosettes of leaves.
After flowering, if you do not plan to collect the seeds for further breeding bergenia, it is recommended to cut the peduncles. This is done in order not to weaken the plants and allow them to form strong healthy leaves.
Badan winters well in temperate latitudes, does not suffer from frost and does not need shelter. However, if you decide to cover the bushes for the winter with spruce branches, in the spring they will thank you for their powerful growth and more friendly and lush flowering compared to those who were not provided with shelter for the winter.
Diseases and pests
To determine whether a plant is sick, you need to examine its leaves.
Bergenia is rarely sick and is almost not damaged by pests, however, improper growing conditions can provoke infection of fungal diseases. Such a danger arises when the soil and air humidity is high. First, on the leaves appear round spots of brown color, which later become brown-gray.
You can determine the fungal disease, carefully examining the leaves. If white bloom is visible on the bottom of the sheet, this indicates the presence of spores. When infected with fungal diseases, bergenia leaves can dry out completely.
Disputes are transmitted along with diseased planting material and retain their viability even in the cold season. Therefore, after identifying the disease, it is necessary to cut and burn the diseased leaves, and treat the plants with copper-containing preparations, for example, Bordeaux mixture. During the growing season, spraying can be performed as a preventive measure.
If after wintering you notice dried and blackened leaves on the bushes of a thick-leaved tree bean, do not rush to throw them away.. Over-wintering leaves underwent natural fermentation and acquired healing properties. In Siberia, Mongolia and the Far East, they are usually brewed and drunk as tea.
Dried leaves Badana
This drink is called Mongolian or Chigir tea. It has a dark color, has beneficial properties, has a tonic effect and improves immunity.
Badan rhizomes are also used as a therapeutic raw material. They are harvested in the summer months (June-July).
In the rhizomes, as in the leaves, contains up to 27% tanninswhich belong to the group of gallotanins. In addition, gallic acid is present in the leaves, up to 22% arbutin, up to 35% tannids and 2-4% free hydroquinone. In the rhizomes are also derived derivatives of bergenine isocoumarin.
Bergenia preparations are used in traditional medicine as hemostatic, astringent, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents.. They are used for bleeding, inflammation, colitis and used in dental practice for the treatment of chronic inflammatory processes of the oral cavity and gum disease.
An interesting feature: with age, the content of tannins in the foliage of bergenia decreases, and in rhizomes it increases.
Use in landscape design
Badan culture began to grow in the middle of the XVIII century. Garden forms of this perennial are widespread in Europe. The original outlines of the bushes, interesting shape and rich colors of leaves and inflorescences allow you to create beautiful compositions.
Badan in landscape design
The plant has a decorative appearance from early spring to frost:
- in the spring Bergenia bushes adorn numerous inflorescences with bright flowers
- summer its lush foliage serves as an excellent background for other flowering plants - irises, daylilies, phloxes, bluebells, asters, doronicum, gaillardia, alissum
- at September Bergenia leaves change their green coloring to a colorful autumn range, and the plants come to the fore again, attracting attention with bright colors
- even with the onset of winter leaves remain fresh, leaving in this form under the snow
Different varieties of bergenia react differently to the onset of cold weather. This is manifested in a different change in the color of the leaves in late autumn. Some varieties first darken the edges of the leaves, becoming brighter with a decrease in temperature. For others, the red border turns into bizarre divorces, while for the third, the entire sheet plate becomes crimson, orange or crimson.
In Russia, Badan is used rather rarely as an ornamental plant. And in vain: it looks great in the landings that mimic the natural landscape: on the banks of reservoirs, in alpine hills and rocky gardens. Badan is good in the role of curb plant.
Groups of the same type look great against the background of well-groomed lawns. Badan is well combined with ferns, conifers and ground cover plants. Its large round leaves are harmonious combinations with plants that have narrow and split foliage.